The European Union and The Supra-Religion

Dr. Robert Congdon

Some of the HTML versions of the articles have errors. If you have view problems try reading the PDF version.

Fourteenth Annual

Pre-Trib Study Group

The European Union and the Supra-Religion.

Dr. Robert R. Congdon

Part 1 – The Need for an Alternative Scenario – page 1

Part 2 - The Road to the Supra-National Government – page 7

Part 3 - The Road to the Supra-Religion – page 15

Part 4 – Creating the Supra-Religion – page 23

Bibliography – page 47

Presented

5 December 2005

December 5-7th, 2005

Harvey Hotel

Dallas/Ft. Worth

Note: The following material is an excerpt of a manuscript being prepared for publication, and as such, is copyrighted by Dr. Robert R. Congdon. All rights are retained and reserved by him. Permission is granted to the Pre Trib Research Center to use this material in a manner consistent with its presentation at the Annual Pre-Trib Study Group. Otherwise, no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the author.

© 2005 Robert R. Congdon


Part 1 – The Need for an Alternative Scenario

In 16th Century Britain the flame of reformation burst forth spreading Christianity throughout the land. Today, no such spiritual fires are burning in the United Kingdom, for the flame of Christianity grows dim throughout the nation and the future is uncertain.[1] A recent study found that the current Sunday church attendance will decline to less than 2% by the year 2040. Foreseeing the nationwide closing of 18,000 churches, The Daily Telegraph declared the churches to be “on the road to doom.”[2]

Similarly, throughout the twenty-five nation European Union, traditional Christianity seems to be fading away, as evidenced by the latest proposed 250-page European Union constitution.[3] Conspicuously absent from this ponderous document is any reference to God or any recognition of the “Judeo-Christian values … [which] shaped European culture.”[4] Even Alexander Kwasniewski, the self-described atheist and former president of Roman Catholic Poland, “called the godless tone of the constitution shameful.”[5]

In stark contrast to these trends, over 4.5 million people flock to Fatima, Portugal each year to worship at its worldwide ecumenical venue. What was once solely a Roman Catholic shrine is now becoming “a multi-faith centre where Buddhism, Islam, Christianity and Pagan religions can rest at ease with each other.”[6]

What is behind this remarkable contrast regarding European spirituality? What really underlies these trends and events in Europe? One possible answer is that mankind is nearing the point in history prophesied by the Apostle John in Revelation 17 and 18, where he describes a latter-day global government and global religion.

Throughout history, Christians have speculated as to the form of the latter-day world-uniting government and religion. Many have speculated that one dominant religion will conquer all of the other religions of the world. Such a scenario foresees the demise of the conquered religions as masses are engulfed by this dominating religion. One’s candidate for the dominant religion is often based upon personal prejudices and bias against one religion or another. In some cases, the choice of candidate is influenced by world events involving a specific religion.

The Alternative – Supra-Religion

In this paper, I would like to offer an alternative scenario based upon a study of Biblical prophecy and my observations of historical religious trends in Europe. This scenario envisions a latter-day supra-religion allied with a supra-national government.

Supra-Defined

“Supra” is a prefix that indicates the concept of “above, over, beyond, or before.”[7] In this instance, the prefix indicates that a supra-religion/government is above or over those religions/governments subservient to it. Thus, it transcends established systems. In a supra-system, a ruling authority independent of those served by the supra-system determines policy. Thus, policymaking is based solely upon the goals of the ruling authority rather than upon the desires or wishes of those represented by the supra-system. In such a system there are few, if any, checks and balances to restrain the power or direction of the ruling authority. Theoretically, this ruling authority decides what is best for those subservient to it. Additionally, the ruling authority can only be supra if its loyalty and aspirations are to the ruling authority, avoiding all personal bias owing to national loyalty and emotion.

For example: In the government of the European Union, the ruling authority is above and independent of the subservient national governments[8] and, therefore, bases its decisions and policies to favor the “good” of the overall supra-national government and its goals without significant consideration for any individual subservient nation’s needs. Additionally, each member of the authority must not allow his own nationality or loyalty to homeland to influence him.

Similarly, a supra-religion is one where the ruling authority is above and independent of the subservient religions and, therefore, bases its decisions and policies to favor the “good” of the supra-religion’s goals, without consideration for any subservient religion’s unique beliefs or distinctives. The ruling-authority is not in and of itself a religion; rather, it is a governing entity that does not favor a single belief system. For example: A supra-religion governing both Muslims and Hindus would not restrict the worship style of either, but would merely require loyalty and support to the supra-religion’s ruling authority and its goals. Key to a supra-religion is the idea that it does not replace or eliminate an existing religion, it merely controls and links the subordinate religions into a united body while allowing them to continue to maintain their own identities and systems of worship as long as in doing this they do not conflict with the supra-religion’s purposes. The stated goal of the supra-religion would be identical to that of the supra-government – to prevent conflict and to bring “peace and harmony” to the world.

Alliance of Global Religion with Global Government The Time of the Alliance

Revelation 17 may well describe an alliance of a supra-government with a supra-religion:

And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will shew unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters: 2With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication. 3So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet colored beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns. 4And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication: 5And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.

In the proposed alternative scenario it would appear that the “woman” is the supra-religion and the “scarlet colored beast” is the supra-government. This alliance of government and religion may well be the latter-day form of the global government and global religion put in place during the first half of the Tribulation and named by the apostle John “Babylon the great, the mother of harlots and abominations of the earth.” John Walvoord places the formation of such a global religion before the seven vial judgments, noting that the seven angels still have the seven vials. Consequently, he places the implementation of this alliance at the beginning of the Tribulation (Daniel’s 70th Week) and continuing to the mid-point of the Tribulation.[9] This latter-day supra-religion, described as the “woman (v. 1),” arises as a ruling authority above or “supra” to the existing religions of the world. It is not a new, independent religion but, rather, a ruling authority over all of the existing religions of the world.

The apostle John often uses the term “woman” to symbolize religion or a religious system in the book of Revelation. For example, in Chapter 2, verse 20 he uses Jezebel to represent “pagan idolatry of the past.” In Chapter 12, verse 1, he pictures a sun-clothed woman as representing the nation and religion of Israel. In 19:7-8 and 21:9, the woman is the Bride of Christ, the true believers of the Church Age. Recognizing this, we find four characteristics of John’s “woman” of Revelation 17:

Four Characteristics of the Alliance of Revelation 17

1) The apostle John describes the “woman” of Revelation 17 as a “whore” or harlot, symbolically indicating that she represents a false religious system; for in “prophetic language, prostitution, fornication, or adultery is equivalent to idolatry or religious apostasy (Isa. 23:15-17; Jer. 2:20-31; 13:27; Ezek. 16:17-19; Hos. 2:5; Nah. 3:4).”[10] The adjective “great” (megas) modifies “whore” indicating a harlot of great size, age, intensity, and/or rank.[11]

Additionally, the “woman” represents “an ecclesiastical or religious facet that is a counterfeit of the real.”[12] Therefore, it must have the appearance and attractiveness of a viable religion in order for it to appeal on a worldwide level since a blatant lie deceives only a relatively small number of people. Thus, by combining “great” and “whore” we see that it is “beyond dispute that this woman of Rev. 17:1 is the epitome of spiritual fornication or idolatry.”[13] Therefore, we would expect the ruling authority of the latter-day supra-religion to be a counterfeit of a genuine ecclesiastical or religious facet of true belief rather than a new religious belief. We would hasten to add that such a counterfeit ruling authority will ultimately be triumphed over by the translated church of Revelation 19:2.[14]

2) Revelation 17:1 pictures the “woman” seated “upon many waters.” John himself defines this symbolism for us in verse fifteen where “waters” are “peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.” The all inclusiveness of this characteristic shows that this counterfeit religious system will be global in its scope, affecting great multitudes of people of many nationalities and nations.

3) John’s inclusion of “nations” suggests that this system’s influence and power extends beyond people groups and dominates the nations and governments ruling them. He re-iterates this in verse two, indicating that her fornication extends also to the “kings of the earth.” Therefore, this counterfeit religious system will be allied with national governments.[15] Revelation 18:3 expands this alliance to include the “merchants of the earth.” Thus, the “woman” is involved with global government and its commerce. Her harlotry and its resultant power over them is so overwhelming that we are told the inhabitants of the earth follow her as if they are “drunk” and have lost self-control because of her (v. 2). Clearly, this “drunkenness” indicates the irrational nature of the drive that compels people and governments to support her.

In verse three we note that the woman is seated “upon a scarlet-colored beast.” This “beast” is the same one of Revelation 13:1 and represents the latter-day global government.[16] The position of the “woman” to the “beast” suggests the power structure of the alliance, one in which the “woman” dominates and controls the “beast.” Thus, “…by the woman sitting on the wild-beast, is signified that superintending and guiding power which the rider possesses over his beast.”[17] Interestingly, the European Union makes extensive use of a woman upon a beast or bull as a symbol. While the European Union would state that the symbol merely represents the mythological Europa for which Europe was named, the likeness to the woman and beast of Revelation is noteworthy. Later, further consideration will be given to this ancient mythology and a possible linking of it with the final global government and global religion.

4) In Revelation 17:1, the expression “the great whore that sitteth upon many waters” has a possible alternative meaning when it is translated “the great whore that sitteth on the shore of.[18] If this translation is correct, then the center of this global religion/government alliance will be located at Babylon. In this case, John’s imagery may be reflecting the city of Babylon with “its many canals, irrigation trenches, dikes, and marshes surrounding the city and contributing to its protection and wealth.”[19] This view gains further support by the references to Babylon in Revelation 17:5 and Revelation 18.[20] Certainly, consideration must be given to this alternative translation as we seek to find if there is any significant linkage between ancient Babylon and the supra-religion.

A Caution Concerning the Alliance

Through John’s prophetic imagery it is possible to identify many characteristics of the alliance of a global, counterfeit religious system with a global government and commerce system during the first half of the Tribulation. However, it must be noted that prior to the Tribulation, it is only possible to hypothesize as to the true identity of both “the beast” and “the woman.” Keeping this in view, one may proceed in an attempt to identify their embryonic forms prior to the start of the Tribulation.

It is impossible to know if the European Union is the embryonic form of the government that will ally itself with a final global religion as described in Revelation 17. However, at the very least, it serves as a powerful example of just how such an alliance could develop. In order to understand how a global supra-government could form an alliance with a global supra-religion, one must first understand how the European Union evolved from the 1920’s Utopian dream of a few men into its current position as a unique supra-national government seeking to unite 109 nations of the world. It will then be possible to understand how this seemingly secular government has, in fact, a potential religious aspect, as well as an alliance with a single established religion. A scenario will be proposed explaining that from this alliance a supra-religion may arise and in so doing, set the stage for the final act of this present age as outlined in Revelation 17.


Part 2 - The Road to Supra-National Government

Any understanding of a how a supra-religion may arise in the world first requires an understanding of its relationship to a supra-national government and commerce. This relationship begins with a study of the development of the supra-national European Union and its evolution from a “European Dream” into a potential global government of 109 nations. Our study begins with the city of Strasbourg, France:

The Dream and its Dreamers

The spectacular glass-faced tower of the European Union’s Louise Weiss Building beautifully reflects the merging of the French river Ill with the German river Rhine in the ancient border city of Strasbourg. In the distance one sees half-timbered buildings and churches with Gothic spires raised heavenward. If these antiquated buildings could speak they would tell of the hundreds of years of conflict between these two countries in this historic border city, conflict that has divided Europe and prevented it from reaching its full potential as a global empire.

Today the Louise Weiss Building represents the near completion of the long desired dream of a united Europe living in peace and prosperity. Seen waving and fluttering in the breeze between the building and the rivers are twenty-five national flags representing 450 million people who make up the European Union. In this building meet the members of the European Union’s Parliament. Architecturally world renowned for its unique design, the upper stories of the Weiss building appear to be unfinished, with vertical support beams visibly exposed to the air as if the builders had left before adding the final concrete and glass walls, yet it was completed and dedicated in December of 1999. This designed “incompleteness,” inspired by the world famous, Swiss-born architect, Le Corbusier, proclaims to the world that the European Union is “perpetually unfinished, always an imperfect unity, which we must strive to improve.”[21]

Le Corbusier – the Architect

The world famous architect, Le Corbusier, came into prominence in the 1920’s by achieving fame with his many unique designs of concrete, glass, and steel. He is perhaps best known for his United Nation’s building with its tall rectangular tower. Like many of his time he became caught up in the utopian beliefs of his era, being described as the “most Utopian of all 1920’s architects.”[22] He believed in the European Dream of a peaceful, united Europe. He philosophized that if people were merely given the right leadership/government, incentives, and a better environment, which included better housing (his part in the realization of the dream), conflicts and strife would cease.[23] Le Corbusier envisioned a “Radiant City,” a perfectly planned world created by efficient technocrats.”[24] Le Corbusier influenced many European leaders who would eventually form the European Union. One such person was Jean Monnet who dreamed of a “supranational government of the future, run by technocrats, rising above all the messy complications of nationalism and democracy.”[25] A team of architects took the late Le Corbusier’s architectural ideas that reflected his philosophy and designed the Weiss building.

To many observers, the Weiss building went beyond Le Corbusier’s subtle suggestions incorporated in his design of the United Nation’s tower in New York by openly revealing his Utopian ideal of a rebirth of the Tower of Babel[26] that would unite the people and prevent further conflicts, such as the horrible “War to end all wars.”

Monnet – the Bureaucrat

Like many people of the 1920’s, the events of World War I deeply affected Jean Monnet. Prior to the war, Monnet served under France’s economics minister Clemental as chef de cabinet.[27] In 1917 he joined with Arthur Salter, a co-founder of the EU, to co-ordinate “requisitioning merchant shipping for the Admiralty.” In this position he proposed his first supra-national organization that was designed to dictate all Allied shipping.[28] Following the war, Monnet became a deputy secretary general of the League of Nations. His superior, Sir Eric Drummond conceived that the League’s Secretariat should not “consist of national delegates but of international servants whose first loyalty was to the League.”[29] In the 1930’s Monnet was involved in the banking industry. It was not until the end of the next war that Monnet was to see his ideas and those of Salter become reality in the supranational European Union. With time, Monnet’s ongoing, relentless pressure to expand and increase the powers of a supranational government would be named the “Monnet method” or engrenage. In this method, each new advance of supranationalism is “regarded as a means of gearing up for the next.”[30] Monnet’s method was to propose a seemingly minor treaty or agreement. Within that treaty was hidden a principal, which once made law, opened the door to a much larger application and expansion of the granted power. It is this ongoing method, utilized by the European Union, that will bring the EU to either success or failure in achieving the dream of becoming a global empire and possibly fulfilling two characteristics noted in Daniel’s prophesy of the final form of man’s fourth kingdom in Daniel 7:23.

First Characteristic - A Global Empire

The goal of the European Union is to unite all of Europe into one union that will also promote peace, harmony, and prosperity and prevent future world conflicts. This “European Dream,” as it is often labeled, proposes a single government that will eliminate national rivalries and conflicts within Europe. Beginning with the Utopian dreamers of the 1920’s, the European Union of today is an established government over 25 countries in Europe. Many within the government envision an eventual 109 nations under the umbrella of a renamed “Union.” The instrument making this present 25-member union functional is its unique supra-national authority.

This study will discuss just how this supra-national authority may be the fulfillment of mankind’s fourth and final government prophesied by Daniel in Chapter 7 verse 23. It will be assumed that the reader has an adequate knowledge of Daniel’s prophecies and their interpretations, particularly with reference to Daniel chapters 2 and 7. Thus, we will focus in upon a key verse (7:23) that may be relevant to the European Union:

Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.

It must be noted that the fourth empire will devour the “whole earth.” Recognizing that at no time in history did ancient Rome “devour the whole earth,” this refers to a future time when a global form of the Roman Empire will control, for all practical purposes, the civilized world in the latter days. Thus, for the European Union to be this latter day form, it must be global in nature and not just European.

In Italy during the 1930’s, Benito Mussolini rose to power with the goal of restoring the Roman Empire with himself as emperor. Simultaneously, Adolph Hitler forged the Third Reich or kingdom with the same goal of a united Europe. Joining their efforts, and sanctioned by the Vatican, the European Dream seemed within reach. In 1936 Mussolini officially declared the alliance of Germany, Italy, and the Vatican as the resurrection of the Roman Empire.[31] Ironically, for almost 1600 years those seeking the ‘Dream of Union’ had generated wars, instability, and economic failure for Europe. While some leaders sought betterment for their people, the vast majority, like Mussolini and Hitler, sought power, wealth, and notoriety.

This new alliance was defeated in 1945 with the end of World War II. European nations seemed ready to do anything in order to insure peace, including yielding up their own sovereignty. Interestingly, within days of the restoration of the nation of Israel, a group of European leaders organized the six-nation embryo of the European Union that was named the Council of Europe.

Employing the Monnet Method, they concentrated on a coal and steel treaty between France and Germany. This was the first time in history that two nationalistic industries were removed from the jurisdiction of their own sovereign countries and placed under the control of a supra-authority of commissioners that were not accountable to their respective nations. With this small step, a principle was established that would bring about the supra-national government of the European Union and, with it, a potential global government empowered by a single law system, single monetary system, and single army.

Publicly, the European Union describes itself as “a family of democratic European countries, committed to working together for peace and prosperity.”[32] Since its six-nation beginning, the European Union has increased to 25 countries. Based upon the European Union’s own expansion plans, they see the union growing in the near future to 80 countries with over 430 million people. Looking to the future, the Director of Foreign Policy at the Centre for European Reform projects the ultimate growth of the renamed “Union,” to include 109 nations of the world -- including both North and South America.[33] Such a Union certainly fits Daniel’s description of “the whole earth” as seen in verse 23.

A study of the European Union’s “Neighborhood Policy” (a form of the Monnet Method), reveals its goal to absorb the Middle East, Egypt, and North Africa (all of the nations that were once a part of the ancient Roman Empire). Added to this, is its embryonic work with Mercosur, the Southern Common Market created by four South American states in March of 1991.[34] The European Union is fast moving to a modern-day, worldwide Roman Empire with “the emergence of a world of regions.”[35] By replacing nations with governed world regions, the globalist’s believe that national rivalries and conflicts will be avoided. This concept could be that described by Daniel in Daniel 7:24.

Utilizing the Monnet Method, the European Union made the supra-authority concept practical in the governmental world. Certainly, the supra-authority concept is unique in the world’s systems of government. As such, it may also be that which Daniel described in Daniel 7:24 where he writes of the ten horns or kings arising from this kingdom.

Second Characteristic – A Diverse Empire

While these expansionist concepts of the European Union potentially “fit” the “whole earth” descriptions of Daniel 7:23, we note a second characteristic also required of the final kingdom of Daniel 7:23 — that it is “diverse.”

Surprisingly, few Bible commentators make note of the significance of this “diverse” kingdom. Yet, in the word “diverse” is a key to understanding what distinguishes the latter day form of the Roman Empire from its past form or its current fragmented form. The Aramaic word “diverse” is repeated several times in this chapter (vv. 3, 7, 19, 23, 24).

Verse 7 states that the fourth kingdom will be “diverse” from the three previous kingdoms. In verse 23 we learn that it is “diverse” from “all kingdoms,” not just the first three of Daniel. Clearly, we need to understand the meaning of this word since it is what sets the latter day kingdom apart from its earlier form and from all of the other kingdoms of history.

The English definition of “diverse” is something that is “distinctly dissimilar or unlike”[36] anything else. The ancient Chaldean word means to “be different from”[37] or unique. Summing it up, “diverse” is something that is unique from everything else. Daniel uses the same word to describe the anti-Christ of the Tribulation (Daniel 7:24). Based upon Daniel’s use of “diverse” we expect the latter day form of the Roman Empire to be unique in history in some distinct aspect.

Is the European Union Diverse?

Now we must ask, “Is the EU that diverse kingdom written of by Daniel?” Responding to the devastation of World War I, Jean Monnet offered the world a unique, new form of government. He called it a “supra-national” government and defined it as “transcending established national boundaries or spheres of interest.”[38]

In 1308, the poet and statesman, Dante, first proposed this unique form of union never before seen in history. Speaking of the Dream of European Union in his treatise, De Monarchia, he addressed the issue of how Europe might end the wars and conflicts produced by a multitude of nations and city-states.[39] He suggested one independent governing authority be placed above and independent of national governments. This independent authority would govern nations in such a way that the governing authority would be free of national loyalties, influences, or spheres of interest. Thus, the governing authority would base its decisions upon the goals of the union rather than upon the individual member-states’ desires or nationalistic interests.

Since this granted power would not belong to a single nation but to a controlling independent entity, it would be called “supra-national.” Dante’s supra concept could not be accomplished with 14th Century logistics. However, the ease of communication and transportation of the 21st Century now resolves this problem. For the first time in history, this unique form of government could be realized.

In a supra-national system, an independent bureaucracy, composed of civil servants or bureaucrats, determines policies for the member nations, and the member nations must yield to that independent ruling body. Key to this system is the willing subjection of the member nations’ individual sovereignties. Unlike in a federation, where powers flow voluntarily between the governing authorities, forming an inherent check and balance system and maintaining the sovereignty of the individual states, a supra-national governing authority must over-ride state sovereignty. The authority is empowered to govern because it is given the final rule of law, the economic control of the single monetary system, and the might of a single army. Further, Monnet stated that once a particular power has been yielded to the supra-national government, it should never be returned to the individual sovereign nation.[40] Thus, power within a supra-national government flows only one way.

The European Union is following this pattern of a supra-national government. Jens-Peter Bonde, co-president of the Independent Democrat group in the EU parliament, noted that the new proposed constitution “is a one-way-street with transfer of powers from the voters to mainly civil servants and ministers behind closed doors in Brussels.”[41] As a result of this, the European Union’s supra-national government can only grow stronger. Additionally, the EU must continue to absorb its surrounding non-European Union countries in order to prevent conflicts with its member states. In reality, a supra-national system requires the ultimate eradication of all national identities and precludes the existence of nations and national interests.

As the European Union has noted, it is obligated to be involved in its “neighborhood” in order to assure its own peace and security. Thus, it is inevitable that any government outside of the supra-national one is a threat to it. Therefore, a global government is the only logical outcome of a supra-national government. Such a controlling entity reminds one of the days of the tower of Babel. Perhaps the Weiss building does indeed proclaim the goal of the European Union – that of uniting all of mankind.

While the idea of a global government is not new, the concept of supra-nationalism is unique in history. Salter, one of the three founding members of the EU, declared that the proposed form of European Union’s government is “something new in the world’s history.”[42] A recent Oxford University publication noted that “the EU is neither a conventional international organization nor a (national) state, even though many do not accept that the Union may be considered as a political system or polity in its own right. It is not surprising then that the EU is often defined as a unique or hybrid institution.”[43] Others state that “the EU is indeed unique and distinctive.”[44] In the year 2000, after fifty years of existence, the president of the EU vocalized the ultimate outcome of the European Union when he said, “we are aiming at a new kind of global governance, one from which a global government can emerge.”[45]

Thus, Supra-nationalism is unique in history, and with it, the European Union as described by its own leadership is “diverse,” and could well “fit” the description given by Daniel 2500 years ago.


Part 3 - The Road to the Supra-Religion

Today, the European Union has no alliances with any supra-religion. Furthermore, many object to the idea that there is a link between the European Union and any religion. But once one goes beyond the surface of such things as a lack of reference to God in the proposed EU constitution, one quickly discovers an ex-officio alliance between the European Union and the Roman Catholic Church. While today’s alliance is only between a supra-government and an individual traditional religion, it may well be the embryo of the final alliance of Revelation 17.

The European Union’s Links to Roman Catholicism

On 26 August 2004, Roman Catholic Italian Prime Minister Berlusconi, then the president of the EU, hinted at the European Union’s link to the Roman Catholic Church when he stated, “I am profoundly convinced…that the only glue capable of sticking together Europe is Christianity.”[46]

Looking back to the European Union’s “official” founding fathers; Alcide de Gasperi, Robert Shuman, and Konrad Adenauer; one finds that they were all Roman Catholics[47] and are being considered for sainthood as a “reward for founding the European Community ‘on Roman Catholic principles.’”[48] Of Robert Shuman, it was said, “for the father of Europe, Catholicism was not only a faith but a social doctrine.”[49]

The intention of solidifying faith with the social/political realm of the European Union is supported by the fact that the “Vatican has been given the privilege of being the leader and president of the Diplomatic corps of all the member governments of the European Union. That was the recognition which declared that the EU was reckoned to be an alliance of RC states.”[50]

Perhaps the European Union’s flag, its prime symbol, reflects these principles. The Council of Europe proclaims it as being “the symbol par excellence of united Europe and European identity.”[51] On 8 December 1955, the committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe officially adopted the flag.[52] It is an interesting “coincidence” that the vote was conducted on the day of the Roman Catholic Feast of the Immaculate Conception of Mary.[53]

The description of the European Union’s flag calls for a blue background to represent the sky over the western world and upon this “sky” is a “circle of gold stars [which] represents solidarity and harmony between the peoples of Europe.”[54]

Since the European Union believes that peace and prosperity can come only through unity it would seem logical that the circle of twelve stars represents this unity and that every star is of equal importance. This leads to the assumption that each star represents a country within the Union, in much the same way that the United States’ flag has a star for each state in its federation. However, in 1955 the Council of Europe consisted of fifteen members, not twelve members. Further, they have stated “the number of stars has nothing to do with the number of Member States.”[55] Rather, the number twelve was chosen to symbolize the number of “perfection, completeness, and unity,”[56]

This concept is supported by allowing each person to interpret the stars according to his or her own background. Thus, the twelve stars could represent “the sons of Jacob, the tables of Roman legislator, the labors of Hercules, the hours of the day, the months of the year, or the signs of the Zodiac.”[57] Others saw in it the number of the apostles.[58] In addition to these symbols, the European Union “pointed out that the circle of twelve stars was a Christian symbol representing the Virgin Mary’s halo,” that they considered a symbol of European identity and unification.[59] Here was the first hint of a religious aspect, either direct or implied, to the European Union’s flag and therefore, to its purpose and goals.

The unveiling of the Council of Europe’s stained glass window in the Strasbourg Cathedral in 1955 substantiated this aspect. On this occasion the secretary-general of the Council, Leon Marchal, offered this understanding of the twelve stars when he said that they symbolized the “the woman of the Apocalypse” of Revelation 12.[60] When the flag’s designer, Arsene Heitz of Strasbourg, was questioned regarding the interpretation of the flag’s design, he indicated that he based his design upon the iconography of the image of the Immaculate Conception of Mary as seen in Paris’ Rue du Bac.[61]

At Rue du Bac, an apparition of Mary appeared to Catherine Laboure on 27 November 1830. Mary was perceived to be standing upon a globe of the world while crushing Satan’s head with her feet. Around her head were twelve stars. These visions and their interpretations were based upon the Roman Catholic interpretation of Genesis 3:15 and Revelation 12:1. According to the apparition’s instructions, a medal was to be cast depicting the twelve stars. In 1955, while reading of a description of the appearance, Heitz was inspired to use the stars in his flag’s design. Thus, the symbol of twelve stars is linked with the Roman Catholic doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of Mary.[62] This association of the twelve stars with Mary actually originated in 1649 with the Spanish writer and art censor to the Inquisition, Francesco Pacheco and has influenced artists ever since.[63]

According to several sources,[64] the symbolism of the twelve stars of the European Union reflects the symbolism of Revelation 12:1 and the Roman interpretation for the “woman” as being Mary:

While the European Union does not officially declare this verse to be the inspiration of the twelve stars, it does emphasize the symbol as representing “perfection, completeness, and unity.”[65] Obviously, the European Union establishes its own meaning to its flag. Interestingly, it officially has defined all of the symbolism of the flag except that of the twelve stars. However, there have been hints to connect the stars with the “woman” of Revelation 12.

The Meaning of Revelation 12:1

The Roman Catholic understanding of Revelation 12:1 is that the “woman” mentioned is the Virgin Mary.[66] However, the correct way to identify the “woman” is by comparing Scripture with Scripture (1 Corinthians 2:13):

And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars.

One begins by noting that the “woman” is a “great wonder,” literally a “great or mega symbol.”[67] A symbol is never the actual object symbolized, but rather, something that stands for, represents, or suggests another thing.[68] Recognizing her to be a symbol and, therefore, not a literal woman, we find that there is only one passage in Scripture where the sun, moon, and a specific number of stars are mentioned and used in a symbolic fashion:

9And he (Joseph) dreamed yet another dream, and told it his brethren (the twelve sons of Jacob), and said, Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun and the moon and the eleven stars made obeisance to me.

10And he told it to his father (Jacob), and to his brethren: and his father rebuked him, and said unto him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I (Jacob) and thy mother (Rachel) and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth? 11And his brethren envied him; but his father observed the saying.

Genesis 37:9-11

Notice how obeisance (bowing) links the symbols of the sun, moon, and stars to Jacob and his family. Clearly, Jacob understood the symbols. He was the sun, Rachel was the moon, and the eleven stars were Joseph’s brothers. As we learn later in Genesis, this dream foretold the future experiences of Joseph and his brothers in Egypt.

Recognizing that the stars represent all twelve sons of Jacob, and the sun represents Jacob, or “Israel” as God re-named him, and that the moon is Rachel; we conclude that the symbols of Genesis 37:9 represent this historic family (v. 10). Since the symbols of Genesis chapter 37 and those of Revelation chapter 12 are identical, we believe the woman to be the symbol of this family and its descendents from Jacob to the time of the Tribulation. Thus, from the Scriptures we conclude that the “woman” is a symbol of the nation of Israel. Furthermore, when we consider the events depicted in Revelation 12, we find that they do not correspond with events in the Virgin Mary’s life. Replacement Theology, a teaching that God has replaced Israel with the Church, lies behind the replacement of Israel with the Virgin Mary in this verse. Sadly, Replacement Theology reflects people’s hatred of God’s plan and purpose for the nation of Israel. Despite this, the Roman Church and the European Union make the “woman” symbolize the Roman Mary on coins, buildings, and the flag.

The Roman Catholic Links to Europe and the European Union

Throughout history, the Roman Church has expressed a strong interest in Europe and its Dream. In 1309, the Vatican consecrated Europe to the Virgin Mary and placed it under her patronage. More recently, on four separate occasions, the late Pope John Paul II consecrated “the world to our Lady.”[69] In Gibraltar is the shrine of “Our Lady of Europe.” The EU recently granted £200,000 ($360,000) for the shrine’s restoration, one-half of the total cost.[70] In 1979, Pope Paul II officially approved the title of Our Lady of Europe and transferred her feast day to 5 May, to coincide with Europe day. [71] [72] [73] On that occasion, the Pope expressed the Dream of Europe and how it might be achieved by saying that “…under the patronage of Mary, the human family will be drawn ever more closely into fraternal unity and peaceful coexistence.”[74]

From its beginnings until now, the Roman Church has been the prime “thread” binding the Roman Empire together, albeit, at times a loose and fragmented Roman Empire. Even today, many in Europe hope to regain that lost union through the power of the Roman Church. Speaking to the President of the European Commission, the supra-ruling entity of the European Union, John Paul II reminded him that “the Holy See encouraged the formation of the European Union even before it acquired any juridical framework…”[75]

Pope John XXIII “insisted that Roman Catholics should be ‘in the front ranks’ of the unification effort.”[76] In 1975 Pope Paul VI declared, “Can it not be said that it is faith, the Christian faith, the Catholic faith that made Europe? …No other human force in Europe can …re-awaken Europe’s Christian soul, where its unity is rooted.”[77]

Pope Benedict XVI purposely chose his name to reflect the role of St. Benedict of Norcia because he had spread Roman Christianity throughout Europe. Hence, “he represents a fundamental point of reference for the unity of Europe and a strong reminder of the unrenounceable Christian roots of its culture and civilization.” He also indicated, “his reign would be devoted to unity [among Catholics, Jews, Muslims, Orthodox Christians, and other branches of Christianity].”[78] On 27 April 2005, Pope Benedict XVI stated, “St. Benedict…is a fundamental reference point for European Unity and a powerful reminder of the indispensable Christian roots of its culture.”[79]

The Vatican – a world power

Today the Vatican continues to exercise both political and religious power, for it is now the most extensive international organization in the world outside of the United Nations.[80] It has formal state relations with 147 countries of the world and represents one billion people. If formally united with the European Union, it potentially would become the greatest economic and governmental state in the world.

Its desire for world control might be exemplified by the late John Paul II’s proclamation that Jesus Christ will conquer through Mary. Expressing his thoughts at the start of the new millennium, he said, “Here we stand before you [Mary] to entrust to your maternal care ourselves, the Church, the entire world….To you, Dawn of Salvation, we commit our journey through the new millennium.”[81]

Notice the implications of this statement. It implies that Christ needs His Mother to conquer, thus putting her on His level. Further, through her comes salvation, a doctrine that John Paul II referred to and believed when he called Mary the Co-Redeemer. The Roman Catholic Catechism states, “The Virgin Mary ‘co-operated through free faith and obedience in human salvation.’”[82] The funeral pictures of Pope John Paul II reveal his trust in Mary as Co-Redeemer. He directed the placing of the initial “M” beside the engraved cross that is on his coffin. This visual symbol may have been chosen because of its association with the aforementioned 1830’s vision of Mary at the Rue du Bac. According to this vision the apparition of Mary conveyed that she is the “advocate, mediatrix, and working with her Divine Spouse the Holy Spirit in preparing for Christ’s second coming, the Co-Redemptrix.”[83] The apparition indicated that in addition to the previously mentioned twelve stars that were to be cast on the commemorative medal, the design was to incorporate images signifying Mary’s role as Co-Redemptrix. The commissioned medal was designed and cast with a cross surrounded by the twelve stars representing the twelve Apostles and with the initial “M” below to represent “Mary’s part (Co-Redeemer) in our salvation and her role as mother of the Church.”[84]

This brief review has sought to demonstrate the ex-officio linkage between the supra-national government of the European Union with the Roman Catholic Church. An in-depth study reveals that this alliance had its roots in the 4th Century union of the Roman Church and the Roman Empire.[85] Throughout that history, certain common denominators flow. These include the Roman Church’s ongoing interest in the unity of Europe, its persistent desire to ally with state governments of Europe, its desire to dominate the policies of those governments, and its placing at the forefront the importance of Mary and her Immaculate Conception.

Today’s ex-officio alliance between the European Union and the Roman Catholic Church continues that pattern of history and appears to be bringing it to a form as foretold by both Daniel and the Apostle John. However, one must never forget that just as the Roman Empire did not control the entire world, neither does the Roman Catholic Church; it is just one independent religion among many in the world. While many Bible scholars have foreseen the Roman Church as the final super religion of the world, this may not be the case. Such a view ignores the power of other world religions, such as Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, etc. Certainly, world history and its many religious conflicts demonstrate the difficulty of uniting the world’s religions into one cohesive organization.


Part 4 - Creating the Supra-Religion

Having shown that the current supra-national European Union has an ex-officio alliance with the Roman Catholic Church, all that seems to remain is for the Roman Catholic Church to move from its current position of being one among many religions to becoming the dominant religion of the world. In order to achieve this goal it must overcome two prime obstacles: the disunity of “Christian” groups and the great power and influence of competing world religions.

Historically, political power or military force have been used to overcome these obstacles. Most scenarios suggest that an imposed worldwide governmental intervention is necessary in preventing ongoing religious conflicts that wreak havoc throughout the world. As the European Union expands to 109 nations and develops its global army, it would appear that it could impose a superficial religious peace upon people groups. However, as seen in the world today, while this would bring peace on a global scale, it would not preclude religious terrorist attacks within countries. While able to maintain a worldwide peace, the European Union could not assure peace throughout every area within its control. Instead, a new form of “control” is needed that would unite all religions rather than divide or subjugate them. This “control,” however, would have to preclude the political and power struggles so typical of the past.

The following scenario proposes the means to uniting all religions without the need for a new or dominant religion, while avoiding the power struggles of the past and, at the same time, satisfying the characteristics of Revelation 17. This solution brings “peace” to the religious world through a new, unique form of religious “control,” one that is over all, above all, and supreme to all — a supra-religion. Thus, just as a new form of governing authority is needed to bring “peace” to Europe, (one above all, independent to all, and supreme to all) so too, the world will seek a religious controlling entity that is above all others while allowing subordinate religions to continue to practice their own distinctives and, thereby, creating peace through a unique unity.

A satisfactory scenario would require the supra-religion to offer:

  • a system that tolerates religious differences, but negates any differences which could subvert the “peace” of the global supra-religion
  • an alliance with a supra-government to enforce the necessary “tolerance” in order to assure political and religious peace in the world
  • a willing acceptance by the world’s religions of a single unifying factor or controlling entity, one having a form of godliness but without the power — a counterfeit facet of Christianity
  • The “New Toleration”

    This scenario begins by changing the world’s concept of toleration toward religious differences. Even today, the Monnet Method that uses a seemingly insignificant step to establish a principle that can be “geared up” to a larger scale, is introducing the “new toleration.” This Method teaches that tolerance of all religious differences is in the interest of unity and peace. Without such tolerance, conflicts inevitably develop as history has shown. Two examples of the “new toleration” as being taught in the United Kingdom will suffice to demonstrate this method:

    Example 1: Churches Together

    Through Churches Together, hundreds of churches in the United Kingdom are uniting by setting aside their doctrinal differences. The driving force behind this movement is the drastic decline of Sunday church attendance and with it, the fear of extinction. With this fear comes the concept that since “we are so few in number” we cannot allow “minor” doctrines to divide us. Thus, churches pressure any who hold a divergent “minor” doctrine within the churches. One such divisive “minor” doctrine is the premillennial view of Christ’s Second Coming.[86] Believing such divisiveness “hurts the cause of Christ,” churches seek to eliminate its cause. As a result, the premillennial view is rapidly disappearing in the United Kingdom with the intent of promoting “unity” among Christians. With this “small step”, people are being “geared up” to a larger aspect of doctrinal compromise through ecumenicalism. Churches Together states:

    Being ecumenical means looking up to see the big picture: what God is doing through the whole Church in the whole world. It means engaging with others in ways that bring in the Kingdom of God[87], where God's will is done on earth as it is in heaven. It means holding our remaining differences in conversation rather than conflict, engaging in dialogue rather than denouncing each other.

    Unity is not singing in unison and losing our distinctiveness:

    Unity is singing in harmony, each person and tradition enriching the others.

    Churches Together respects the distinctiveness of the “Churches”, but looks to a time when they will be “Together”. [88]

    Today’s membership includes the Church of England, the Church of Scotland, Methodists, Presbyterians, Roman Catholics, Greek Orthodox, Quakers, Free Presbyterians, and many independent groups. A similar movement, the Emerging Church in the United States, is following the same pattern.

    Example 2: Reunification

    Beginning in the 1940’s, militant amillennialism now has displaced premillennialism in most churches throughout England and Scotland. With the establishment of the principle that Christian groups should not allow “divisive minor” doctrines to hinder unity, UK church leaders are gearing up for the next major move toward unity.

    That major move is the formal reunification of the Roman Catholic Church with the Church of England. When complete, England will have peacefully reversed the events of the English Reformation. This unification will benefit both the European Union and the Roman Church. Today the countries of the European Union are predominantly Roman Catholic, with England being the lone Protestant land. Thus, unification of the UK churches under the Roman banner strengthens the unity of the European Union alliance.

    The Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC) is following a three-step process that is the mechanism for resolving the historic division between Rome and the Church of England. Their first resolution, Step One, was reached in May of 1999 and declared the Pope as having primacy over the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury if a “new united church” were established.[89]

    In Step Two of this year further agreement was reached on the doctrines of the Immaculate Conception of Mary and her assumption of “body and soul into heaven at the end of her earthly life.” The Church of England participants declared these doctrines “consonant” with Anglican readings of the Bible.[90]

    Step Three will, no doubt, advance the doctrine of Mary’s co-redeemership, a doctrine that the late Pope believed and promoted. Through this three-step process, the churches in England will unite with the Roman Catholic Church by removing “divisive” doctrines and by establishing peace within the “Christian” sects. However, the reality will be the elimination of the properly divisive doctrine of the exclusivity of Jesus Christ and salvation only through Him, a doctrine held today by only a minority within the Anglican Church.

    An Alliance with a Supra-Government

    The typical Brit today has been conditioned through schools and the media to reject and to regard the proclamation that Jesus Christ is the only way to heaven (John 14:6, Acts 4:12) as being intolerant, divisive, and hateful toward other beliefs. Additionally, under the guise of protecting its states from incitement to terrorism, the European Union is promoting laws prohibiting exclusivity of a religious belief. The “Genocide Treaty, signed by many nations, though not yet enforced, makes it a crime to suggest that someone’s religious beliefs are false and to try to convert them.”[91] In order to eliminate “intolerant” people and their resultant threat to society’s peace and to the coming supra-religion, a supra-national government must not allow anyone to express his or her contrary beliefs publicly.

    Thus, the “new toleration” will bring religious peace to Europe while the European Union will bring governmental peace. The re-unification of the Roman Church with the Anglican Church will eliminate the last significant Protestant influence in Europe.

    Recent events, such as the stated goal of the European Union to include the countries of the Middle East, both Muslim and Jewish, would seem to enlarge the “Dream.” Furthermore, longer-range goals are to add all of the Mediterranean countries, including those practicing African religions. After these goals are completed, the re-named “Union” then envisions the inclusion of the entire western hemisphere; thus, Canada and the United States would be brought into this alliance of global government and the Roman Catholic Church. South America is already predominantly Roman Catholic and working with the European Union through Mercosur. This final expansion may, in part, explain the growing French Roman Catholic influence in Canada and the massive Hispanic movement into the United States. Were the supra-national government of the European Union to fully ally with the Roman Church in these countries, it would become a very powerful governmental/spiritual alliance.

    However, this expansion does not solve the problem of how to integrate the Muslim, Hindu, Jewish, and African Pagan religions into this alliance. Certainly none of these religions would accept Roman Catholicism or its dominance. History demonstrates that dominance will not work.

    The Unifying Factor

    The solution to the unification of the world’s religions lies in finding a “unifying factor,” one having the ruling authority of a supra-religion. Such a factor must:

  • Be accepted by all the religions of the world and the supra-government
  • Reflect a common denominator to all and, therefore, be acceptable to all
  • Be a counterfeit of the genuine Faith
  • Governmental Acceptance

    Following a worldwide congress on religion, the French Interior Minister spoke of a need for a “’one world religion’ where individual faiths can live side-by-side under one umbrella…to establish peace and prosperity in the European Union.”[92] The European Union frequently uses the image of the mythical goddess, Europa, as a unifying theme. They have chosen to use “Europa” as the name of their website. A metal sculpture outside of the European Union’s Office Building is that of Europa seated upon a bull. The mythical story of Europa tells of how the god, Zeus carried her off resulting in a child who was miraculously resurrected. This story is often seen as a parallel to the story of Mary, as the virgin mother of Jesus. The European Union’s national anthem, designed to unify the peoples of the many member-states, continues the mother-goddess theme.

    Owing to the need for a universal anthem that transcends the nationalities of its member states and which eliminates translation problems, the European Union did not assign lyrics to their anthem. The anthem they chose was Ludwig van Beethoven’s Ode to Joy. While they disavow any lyrics, it is hard to disassociate the original German lyrics of the Ode to Joy from the European Union’s anthem. A recent translation of these lyrics suggests a possible unifying factor within the anthem. The lyrics are as follows:

    Ode to Joy[93]

    Joy, Oh! Divine scintillation

    Sparkling from Elysium[94],

    With a cheerful animation

    Goddess, to thy shrine we come

    These our nations once divided

    Now your magic spells unite,

    Where your wind does beat around them

    Brotherhood and love delight.

    With a kiss bestowed on millions

    Embraced in fraternity,

    Let us build a world of union

    And peace for all humanity

    Clearly, these lyrics express a relationship to the mythical Europa and her ability to unite the world. Thus, the desire of the EU to work with the Roman Church and the Roman Church’s equally significant desire to lead in the European Union, assure the willingness of the European Union to accept any female “goddess” that could unify the world’s religions.

    Even the New Age movement speaks of a unifying “goddess.” Beatrice Bruteau triumphantly says: “But the presence of the Goddess herself has never departed from her holy place in our consciousness, and now, as we enter what may fall to be a ‘new age,’ we sense that the Goddess is somehow making her way back to us. But in just what guise is so far unclear.”[95] Notice, that the New Agers are ready to accept the “goddess” in whatever form she appears.

    The Humanists call for unification through both a supra-national government and a world church. “We deplore the division of humankind on nationalistic grounds. We have reached a turning point in history where the best option is to transcend the limits of national sovereignty and to move toward the building of a world community in which all sectors of the human family can participate.”[96] They continue to support a “movement toward one-world government and a single church or religion.”[97]

    Rome not Ready for a Unifying Factor?

    However, considering the power of the Roman Church it is hard to understand how it could accept a unifying factor coming from outside of the Roman Church. Speaking of a recent ecumenical gathering suggesting such a unifying factor outside of the Roman Church, Peter Scott of the Ignatian Society of Saint Pius X stated:

    Such a humanitarian dread (the union proposed at the Congress) to bring about a one-world super religion, more universal than the Catholic Church, uniting all men of all religions, without in any way diminishing their personal religious convictions, is not something new in history of the Church.[98]

    He calls such a move of unification a “religious indifferentism.” He cited the example of the Roman Church’s reaction to a similar movement called Sillon, developed in France at the turn of the century. In 1910, Pope Pius X denounced it while pointing out how such a movement would lead to a one-world religion resulting in an apostasy of the Roman Catholic faith.[99] Countering this opposition is a counter proposal made by Rome.

    A Roman Solution for a Unifying Factor

    The late Pope offered the Roman Catholic Virgin Mary[100] as the unifying factor when he said, “…under the patronage of Mary, the human family will be drawn ever more closely into fraternal unity and peaceful coexistence.”[101] When this is properly studied, it will be evident that not only would the various Christian groups acknowledge her, but so, too, would the Muslims, Hindus, African Pagans, and other religious groups. Additionally, by basing the Roman Catholic Mary on the true Biblical Mary, the global Mary[102] of the supra-religion becomes a counterfeit of the true Biblical Mary. This counterfeit aspect grows greater when one considers Mary as immaculately conceived, bodily assumed into heaven, interceding in heaven, and co-redeemer.

    Pope John Paul II believed that the Roman Mary would bring about the ultimate victory of the Universal Church. In his book, Crossing the Threshold of Hope, he said, “On this universal level, if victory comes it will be brought by Mary. Christ will conquer through her, because he wants the Church’s victories now and in the future to be linked to her.”[103] In the largest gathering of the Roman Church since Vatican II, Pope John Paul II entrusted humanity and the third millennium to Our Lady of Fatima. In his lengthy prayer he began by saying “Everything in you is fiat: you are the Immaculate One, through you there shines the fullness of grace.”[104] He then committed the future to her and expressed his entrusting of the world to her; “Here we stand before you to entrust to your maternal care ourselves, the Church, the entire world.”[105] Concluding he said, “To you, Dawn of Salvation, we commit our journey through the new millennium…”[106]

    Found throughout the world are Marian followers, but a particular group called the Blue Army has over 20 million members.[107] A second group, the Marian Movement of Priests, has a membership of 100,000 priests out of the 400,000 priests of the Roman Church.[108] In a Marian apparition to Fr. Gobbi, Mary supposedly said:

    But in the furious struggle of these last times, this struggle between heaven and earth, between the heavenly spirits and the demons, between the Woman and the Dragon, I appear as a great sign of my greatest victory . . . for this great victory, I have formed for myself the cohort of all my little children who, from every part of the world, have responded to me with a yes….I have formed for myself my victorious army.[109]

    In another message to Gobbi, Mary is reported to have said, “With extraordinary signs which I am giving in every part of the world…I am pointing out to everyone the approaching of the great day of the Lord.”[110] With her warnings concerning the times, she emphasizes that she has come as the “Blessed Mother” for all people of the world, regardless of their religion.[111] In the same message, she urged all to pray, “…for all religions, because we know that we have divided ourselves by religion.”

    In a message given to Ida Peerdeman of Alkmaar, Holland, on May 31, 1954, Mary supposedly indicated that when the dogma, the last Marian dogma of history,[112] has been proclaimed she will give peace, true peace to the world. She stipulated that the nations must say “My prayer in union with the Church” and proclaim her co-redemptrix, mediatrix, and advocate.[113]

    De Montfort, a past devotee of Our Lady, predicted, “The power of Mary over all devils will be particularly outstanding in the last period of time. She will extend the Kingdom of Christ over the idolaters and Moslems, and there will come a glorious era in which Mary will be ruler and queen of human hearts.”[114]

    Perhaps Muslims will allow this “extension of the kingdom” over them in part because some of Mary’s most famous apparitions have occurred at Fatima. The village of Fatima was named after the daughter of Mohammed, founder of Islam. Her Arabic name means, “shinning one.” She was born (c. 605) in Mecca of Saudi Arabia and died in Medina in 633.

    Since the appearances at Fatima and those at Lourdes, France, additional appearances have been recorded around the world. Many eyewitness accounts describe the apparition as being brilliant to behold and arrayed with every splendor. Fifteen to twenty million followers visit the Marian shrine in Guadalupe, Mexico every year.[115] Here the Roman Mary first appeared on 12 December 1531 to Juan Diego. In 1999, over five million people came to honor “Our Lady” on the anniversary of this apparition.[116] This was the first time in church history that all bishops and priests of the Western Hemisphere honored her feast. She also has appeared in Bosnia, the state of Georgia, Poland, Venezuela, Egypt, Israel, Rwanda, Japan, Australia, Chile, Canada and many other places.[117]

    On 31 May 1954, at her appearance to Ida Peerdeman, she proclaimed herself the “Lady of All Nations” and expressed the desire that the Roman church proclaim her the co-redemptrix.[118]

    According to Newsweek: “In many ways, the 20th century has belonged to Mary. From almost every continent, visionaries have reported more than 400 ‘apparitions’ of the Virgin – more than in the previous three centuries combined. Taken together, these visions point to what the Marian Movement believes is a millennial ‘Age of Mary.’”[119]

    Mary’s message at Medjugorje sums up the messages of her many appearances:

    Dear children, today I invite you to peace. I have come here as the Queen of Peace and I desire to enrich you with my Motherly Peace. I invite you to become carriers and witnesses of my peace to this unpeaceful world. Let peace rule in the whole world which is without peace and longs for peace.[120]

    With the exception that she once referred to Him as “the little Jesus,” there has been no mention of the Lord Jesus Christ or the need of redemption through Him.[121] In another quote, she declared that Muslims and the Orthodox, for the same reason as Catholics, are equal before “my Son and I. You are all my children.”[122]

    Through these appearances, the Roman Mary of the 21st century appeals to people of all nations, all beliefs, and all cultures. Her message of peace is what many want to hear. The Los Angeles Times noted that unprecedented numbers outside of Roman Catholicism have received comfort from Mary.[123]

    In 1983 hundreds of Palestinian Arabs “saw the Virgin Mary” near Bethlehem. She has appeared also in Rwanda, Japan, Australia, Chile, Poland, Canada, Cairo, Amsterdam, and in many other locations.[124]

    Muslims Might Accept Her

    While Roman Catholicism could certainly accept Mary as the unifying factor, could Islam also accept her? Muslims do show considerable interest in Mary. In the Koran, Mohammed spoke of Mary, either directly or indirectly, over thirty-four times in chapters (Suras) 3, 4, 33, 43, 57 and 66. Additionally, an entire chapter (Sura 19) is named after Mary.[125]

    For example, the Koran says explicitly, "And she who had remained a virgin ... We have breathed our Spirit upon her. We have made of her and her Son a sign to the world"(Sura 31, v. 91) (Mary is) "chosen over all women in the world."[126] Mary is “the most honoured woman in Islam, and the only one to have an entire chapter (the 19th surah) named after her in the Koran….The Islamic tradition holds that Jesus and his mother are the only two human souls who were not touched by Satan at birth.”[127] Therefore, it supports the concept of Immaculate Conception, a key “common denominator” for reunification between the Church of England and the Roman Church. Interestingly, all references to Jesus Christ are “Jesus son of Mary” rather than “Son of God.” While denying Christ’s deity, Islam does hold Jesus and Mary in high esteem.[128]

    Hindus ready?

    Other religious leaders have also made the pilgrimage to Fatima. In May 2004, the Dali Lama visited and prayed at the Fatima shrine. After a Hindu priest, Sha Tri, prayed at the altar, the Rector of the shrine said such meetings gave them the opportunity to “remind ourselves that we live in community.”[129] The Hindu priest placed a Hindu priestly shawl, engraved with inscriptions from the Begavad Gita, “on the shoulders of the highest representative of the Church in Fatima…”[130]

    Following these events there were rumors of the removal of the Rector of the shrine by the Bishop of Lisbon, but by October of 2004, the Bishop related the Vatican’s support of him and the “personal instructions” from the late Pope regarding inter-religious dialogue.[131]

    The movement in Fatima reveals that rather than seeing Roman Catholicism as becoming the only worldwide religion, those at Fatima foresee a pan-representative religious system centering on the least common denominator. A congress was sanctioned by leaders within the Roman Church with a purpose that suggests that they are supra-religionists and prime for a supra-religion.

    Transforming the Roman Mary to the Global Mary

    The Vatican, uniting with the United Nations, sponsored an inter-faith congress at Fatima’s shrine, 10-12 October 2003, entitled “The Present of Man - The Future of God.”[132] The Bishop of Leiria-Fatima instigated the congress and the Cardinal Patriarch of Lisbon and the Prefect of the Vatican’s Pontifical Council for Inter-religious Dialogue presided over it.[133] [134] The choice of Fatima reflected the fact that the Fatima shrine is rapidly becoming the centre for all the world’s religions to come to worship. Over 4.5 million people a year come to Fatima. This latest congress included Hindu, Muslim, Jewish, Eastern Orthodox, Buddhist, and African Pagan representatives.

    At the congress, the shrine’s rector said, “The future of Fatima, or the adoration of God and His mother at this holy Shrine, must pass through the creation of a shrine where different religions can mingle.…the Shrine of Fatima is not indifferent to this fact and is already open to being a universalistic place of vocation.”

    This outreach to the Roman Mary far exceeded what most people anticipated. The Hindu representative, Ansshok Ansraj speaking to the congress in Fatima,, pointed out that “in the Far East millions of Hindus are getting ‘positive vibrations’ from visiting Marian shrines without endangering their faith.”[135]

    This danger is the fear of proselytization. Anticipating such a fear, the congress released a statement that prohibited proselytizing by all religions. “No one religion can eradicate another or strengthen itself by downplaying others and an open dialogue is the way to building bridges and tearing down walls of centuries of hate. What is needed is that each religion be true to its faith integrally and treat each religion on the same footing of equality with no inferior or superiority complexes.”[136]

    The Coming of Mary before the Anti-Christ

    Clearly, the intent of these groups is to allow existing religious actions and beliefs to continue but to unite rather than to separate themselves. Father Jacques Dupuis, one of the principle speakers of the Fatima congress called for just such a union. “The religion of the future will be a general converging of religions in a universal Christ that will satisfy all.”[137]

    This paper proposes that the ultimate “universal Christ” will be the anti-Christ, brought to power by Satan (Revelation 13:2). The global Mary is neither the anti-Christ nor the false prophet of Revelation 13. In her role as a counterfeit of the true Biblical Mary, she will promote the idea of a universal Christ in a mode similar to the Biblical Mary’s proclamation concerning God and her Savior in the Magnificent of Luke 1:47-55. As seen later in this paper, this counterfeit role expands as we delve further into the actual history of mother/child goddesses. Thus, the global Mary, the woman seated upon a scarlet-colored beast of Revelation 17:3, will serve in as co-redeemer and intercessor between man and the “universal Christ” (the anti-Christ) prior to his assumption of all worship in the second half of the Tribulation (Revelation 17:7,8). In this role, the global Mary serves as a unifying factor drawing the world’s religions together in preparation for the acceptance of the anti-Christ and his worship system.

    With the ongoing growth in the ecumenical movement as seen at Fatima, Roman Catholicism may become just a part of the whole system that places Mary and her declarations as the supra-ruling entity of the supra-religion. With a following consisting of both Muslims and Roman Catholics, over 2 billion people could be obeying Mary. If we add the Protestant groups and others who could subscribe to the pan-religious perspective, half the world’s population could be under the supra-religion centered upon the Magna Mater (as she is often called) of Fatima.

    In addition to the world’s desire for unity and religious peace; certainly, power, influence, and money are contributing factors that will drive these groups together. Fatima, one of the most profitable religious venues in the world, netted a profit in excess of 8.4 million euros in 2003,[138]

    The Alternative Scenario – The Supra-Religion

    With this background information, this paper will now complete the supra-religion scenario and explain why such a scenario “fits” Revelation 17 and 18. In so doing, it sets the stage for God’s ultimate triumph, glorification, and establishment of Jesus Christ’s earthly millennial kingdom and the restoration of the earth as promised by God.

    The Global Mary will arise out of the spirit of “new toleration” in the world, encouraged by the rising power of the European Union as it seeks global governance. The peoples of the world, seeking not only world political peace, will turn to a Global Mary for religious peace. Perhaps through a grand apparition, she will offer a lie or great deception (2 Thessalonians 2:11) to explain the disappearance of the countless people, true believers, at the Rapture of the true Church, and offer the comfort sought by those left behind. They will see in her all the graces, gifts, beauty, comfort, and love of a mother for mankind. The world’s religions, already positive to the Roman Mary, will acknowledge her countless apparitions and accept her as the Global Mary and unite under her direction, authority, and rule. She will be the supra-religion’s governing authority issuing decrees by various apparitions. As the supra-entity, she will be independent of all religions and favor none. She will leave intact their various worship rites and lesser doctrines, requiring only the acceptance of her immaculate conception, intercessory powers, and co-redemptive powers. She will then direct the people of the world (Revelation 17:2, 5, 18),[139] through an alliance with the supra-government, to unity and acceptance of the anti-Christ to solve all remaining problems. He will then assume all supra-governmental authority and all supra-religion authority, eventually displacing the Global Mary and assuming the role of global political leader and god of the world, empowered by Satan and, thereby, fulfilling Satan’s desire to be “like the Most High (Isaiah 14:14).”

    In accomplishing this, Satan will fulfill his dream begun in Heaven and manifested at Babylon in mankind’s first attempt at uniting world government and worship. One might ask how this connection back to Babel or Babylon can be made.

    A Return to Where it all Began

    In Revelation 17:5, John informs us that upon the harlot’s forehead is the name, “Mystery, Babylon the Great, the mother of harlots and abominations of the earth.” Thus, John links the harlot, who we propose to be the Global Mary, with the land of Babylon.

    Biblically, a name is placed on the forehead to describe qualities about the person bearing the label. In Revelation 19:12, Christ is described as having “a name written, that no man knew, but he himself” until He returns as the “Word of God” to the earth to conquer and restore the earthly kingdom to Himself. At that time He receives the name “King of kings and Lord of lords” (Rev. 19:16). True believers also have God’s name written on their foreheads (Rev. 14:1 and 22:4).

    In ancient Roman times, harlots were identified by names written on their foreheads.[140] This provided the obvious function of distinguishing one harlot from another. Just such a label declares the name of the harlot of Revelation 17 to be a “mystery.” Her name “Babylon” is a mystery, a hidden thing, a secret thing.[141] Thus, at the appropriate time “…the true character and identity of the woman, previously kept concealed, are now objects of clear revelation.”[142] Additionally, the syntactical grammar of this verse suggests that the woman’s complete name is “Babylon the Great.”[143] Consequently, we would expect that from Babel to the Tribulation, the identity of the harlot will be hidden until fully revealed as the mother of religious harlots who does not have a legal or rightful relationship to the God of the Bible.

    While many would attach mystical or allegorical references to the name, “Babylon the Great,” we understand it in its apparent or obvious reference. Based upon this conclusion, we believe the intention is to take the reader back to ancient Babel upon the plain of Shinar. As many have rightly concluded, the satanic governmental and religious unity begun with Nimrod will end in a final attempt to reach its pinnacle in the latter days.[144]

    Back to Babel

    This seems a very appropriate conclusion, for Babylon is where the first organized false religion began and, as such, is the “mother” of counterfeit religions. Additionally, throughout the history of Israel and God’s people, Babylon has been a source of problems that have plagued the world right up to the present day.[145]

    Therefore, Babylon, allied with a supra-religion, will once again become the center for the world’s idolatrous worship system that will epitomize satanic worship and opposition to God.[146] Just as Nimrod in ancient days attempted to provide mankind with a central location for Satan worship and rulership so too, in the latter days, will mankind again return to this locality in an attempt to regain the unity lost at Babel. John Walvoord summarizes the use of Babylon as being “the name for a great system of religious error.”[147]

    The logistics for the re-establishment of Babylon is not hard to imagine. In a desire to pacify the Muslim world and to assist in the unification process under the Global Mary, the world will re-build Babylon. In doing this, it will help to distance Rome from the Global Mary, perhaps by renaming her Magna Mater. The recent construction of an entire city, Dubai Internet City, demonstrates the speed of such construction. With sixteen office buildings, 220 luxury residential villas and 10,000 workers, this city has grown in just three years to providing complete business and a community infrastructure for ICT companies.[148]

    It may be that Walvoord’s “great system” has actually been a single system since its inception at Babel, deceptively morphing its outward disguise through the centuries of world history while maintaining its essential elements of harlotry or rebellion against God and supporting Satan’s goals of being a counterfeit of God, i.e., “like the Most High.”

    Ancient Babel’s Harlotry

    The “system” is the abominable religion of ancient Babel. Satan in his rebellion has always sought to mimic God’s worship with a counterfeit religion. Thus, we find that Satan has an anti-Christ in opposition to God’s Christ. Satan has attempted to limit mankind’s expansion throughout the world, “lest we be scattered (Genesis 11:4)”in opposition to God’s commandment to “fill the earth.” He seeks to limit mankind’s reproductive efforts (abortion, homo-sexual movement, late marriages, etc), while God commanded man to “be fruitful and multiply.” Therefore, we would expect a form of worship that is a counterfeit of the worship of God.

    Any religious system that deprives God of His rightful glory is guilty of spiritual harlotry and abominable to God. This final system rightly would be called the “mother of harlots” for having spawned other systems of “spiritual harlotry” throughout history. Our task is to attempt to discover the true nature of the original Babylonian harlotry and too see if it has continued to this very day and will potentially become the final harlot or Magna Mater of our hypothesis.

    In Revelation 17:3, the Spirit took John into the wilderness, a solitary or desolate place.[149] Apparently, the location gave John a better perspective from which to study this “woman.”[150] It was from there, also, that, John had viewed “the beast” as he stood upon the “sand of the sea (Rev. 13:1).” Combining the picture of the “sand of the sea” with the “wilderness,” with John’s discussion of Babylon in Revelation 17 and 18, we are led back to Isaiah 21 where Isaiah also sees a fallen Babylon by the desert or wilderness of the sea (v. 9).[151]

    The burden of the desert of the sea. As whirlwinds in the south pass through; so it cometh from the desert, from a terrible land

    Isaiah 21:1

    In this chapter God speaks through Isaiah to encourage Israel during the Babylonian Captivity, by promising to judge Babylon and her false gods (Isaiah 21:9).

    …Babylon is fallen, is fallen; and all the graven images of her gods he hath broken unto the ground.

    Isaiah 21:9

    This promised judgment is quite similar to the judgment of Babylon in Revelation 18:10, “Alas, alas, that great city Babylon, that mighty city! For in one hour is thy judgment come.” Isaiah had spoken previously of this judgment in Isaiah 14:4, “That thou shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! The golden city ceased!” We note that at this point in history, “the whole earth is at rest, and is quiet: they break forth into singing” (v. 7).

    It is proposed that while Isaiah begins with the king of Babylon (v. 4) he moves from the lesser to the greater and describes the fall of Satan, the power behind Babylon, in the same chapter (v. 15). Thus, in verses thirteen and fourteen, Satan declares his goal of being “upon the mount of the congregation in the sides of the north: I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High.” In verse fifteen, God declares Satan’s ultimate defeat by declaring “Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.” Thus, the Biblical evidence appears to link Babylon, its false religion and its idols, with Satan’s desire for world conquest and worship.[152]

    As ancient Babel began by seeking to unite governmental and religious elements, logic would suggest that mankind’s final governmental and religious system will seek to re-establish the unity lost at Babel. Therefore, the beast “controls the system politically, but the woman represents the false religion that gives spiritual cohesion to the system.”[153] Recalling that Daniel’s picture of the final form of the Roman Empire was made of iron and clay, it is logical to conclude that the clay symbolically pictures the final supra-religion that binds the diverse peoples, the “many waters” of Revelation 17:1, together in the supra-national governmental world.

    Ancient Babel’s Thread in History

    Based upon this background, it is now necessary to examine Babel’s ancient abominable belief. Nimrod began Babel in the land of Shinar (Genesis 10:10), by seeking to unite the world’s peoples together by building the Tower of Babel.

    Biblical references to Shinar suggest a rather “sinister” aspect to the location. Aside from Nimrod’s construction of a tower there, in “Dan 1:2 it is the land of Shinar to which Nebuchadnezzar removes the vessels of the temple of God, and in Isa 11:11 we are told that Shinar is one of the lands from which regathered Israel will return when the Millennial age is established. In Zech 5:11 the woman in the ephah, representing the concentration of evil (v. 8), is removed to the land of Shinar where a temple is built for her.”[154] Shinar is “the major center for the development of a culture and civilization built on counterfeit religion.”[155]

    Tradition teaches that Nimrod’s wife, Semiramis, initiated Babel’s counterfeit religion. There are many variations of this false religion, but one aspect is very clear, a worship cult developed around her that transcends time and cultures. She appears throughout the ancient world under various names and descriptions, thereby hiding her true identity. In her role as mother-child goddess she appears as Nina (Assyria), Ishtar (Samaria), Isis (Egypt), Aphrodite/Astarte (Greece, Phoenicia, Syria), Cybele (Phrygia), and Venus (Rome).

    These legends always involve her son, Tammuz, also known as Adonis (Greek)[156] and Osiris (Egyptian).[157] Sometimes his birth is described as miraculous, as is his death and resurrection.[158] Ezekiel 8:14 records the circumstances of Israel’s “abominable” commemoration of this death and resurrection.[159] Often Tammuz worship included prostitution or harlotry.[160] The common “thread” of these ancient records appears to be a “satanic anticipation of the resurrection of Christ.”[161]

    In Akkadia, she is part of an astral triad consisting of her as Venus, along with Shamash, the sun god, and Sin, the moon god. In this triad, a circle of six, eight, or sixteen star rays symbolize her.[162] This imagery bears a remarkable likeness to the false interpretation given to the “woman” of Revelation 12:1. Even a cursory study of these ancient forms of worship of the mother goddess shows certain common elements passing down from culture to culture throughout history. These elements include: a mother giving birth to a miraculous child, a close relationship between mother and child, the resurrection of the child, some aspect of a bull, the sprinkling of holy water, virgins for prostitution, and other abominable practices.[163]

    The Counterfeit

    Keeping in mind that this false religion originated in Babel as Satan’s counterfeit of God’s plan and Tammuz’s description as being “the Anointed”,[164] he was “presented to the people as a savior, in fulfillment of the promise made to Eve concerning her seed (Genesis 3:15).”[165] Thus, Semiramis would be the satanic version of the “woman” who’s “seed” brings salvation. Once again, Satan offered his substitute for that which God would accomplish. Instead of the Biblical Mary giving birth to Jesus of Nazareth, Semiramis was the anti-Biblical Mary giving birth to the anti-Jesus, Tammuz. In the ancient world, the emphasis shifted from the “seed” to the great mother, Semiramis. Since we believe the true “Seed” is Jesus Christ, God Himself, then any diversion to any other savior is an abomination and those who follow the woman instead of Christ have gone after a “harlot” and worshipped incorrectly.

    From this, we see a principle: By offering a false savior, Satan creates a counterfeit religion that diverts people to him instead of God. The actions of the false mimic the characteristics of God’s true Savior, Jesus Christ. God destroyed the false unity of Babel by forcing the people to spread out upon the earth, but sadly, they took with them the false religion of Semiramis, sometimes called the “Queen of heaven.”[166] Even Israel was subject to her infection, for they prepared cakes for the “queen of heaven,” along with incense to her (Jer. 44:17-19, 25). Even today, Roman Catholics pray to Mary, the “Queen of Heaven.”

    In her “motherly goddess role” Semiramis became the “model and original of every goddess and female cult figure in the ancient and modern worlds (either directly or by derivation)….”[167] The spread of this evil cult and the commonality of its concepts found in most ancient societies evidences the worship of Semiramis as the “great mother (Magna Mater)” and the deified “queen of heaven.” Ultimately the church at Pergamos evidenced its evil and had to be warned against it by God (Rev. 2:13-14). From Babel to 90 ad, the thread of Semiramis’ religion passed through history.

    Considering these ancient records of cults and the evidence seen in the Bible, one concludes that the original form of pagan Babel’s harlotry was a religion centered upon a mother goddess whose son was resurrected. While the son was worshipped, the emphasis always moved to his mother. Today the Roman Mary fulfills a similar role. With the start of the Tribulation, or shortly before, she will morph into the Global Mary, the Magna Mater, the “mother of harlots.”

    We suggest two reasons for the success of this false ongoing counterfeit religion. First, mankind is always sympathetic to motherhood and the high place given to mothers. The second is that, sadly, the sensual nature of man finds any evil worship that involves virgins and prostitution appealing. In the religion of the Magna Mater, the two incongruous concepts blended to create spiritual harlotry, the exact opposite of the true Bible teaching of womanhood and the virgin birth.

    The following is a summary of our conclusion concerning the counterfeit Magna Mater of history:

    1. Semiramis of Babel is the originator, the Magna Mater of all counterfeit religions and is demonic.

    2. The Magna Mater cult is a perverted attempt by Satan to distract from the true teaching of Genesis 3:15, which gives Jesus Christ His rightful position as Savior and bestows on the Biblical Mary the correct position as His earthly mother, a sinner who found redemption through her Savior.

    3. The Magna Mater cult offered a counterfeit anti-Mary as a substitute for God’s Biblical Mary.

    4. The Magna Mater cult detracts from true godly worship by centering attention on the Magna Mater, the mother goddess.

    5. Those who worship the Magna Mater, by partaking with a spiritual harlot, divert worship from the true God.

    6. By incorrectly interpreting Revelation 12:1, the Magna Mater falsely replaces Israel.

    7. The son of the Magna Mater is supposedly resurrected and presents as a false savior offering a counterfeit gospel.

    In addition, no discussion of the Magna Mater would be complete that neglects to address the significance of the bull that she often is seen riding in many accounts, even as late as the Roman Empire in the mystery religions of Mithra.[168]

    Woman on a Beast

    Early readers of the Book of Revelation in the Roman world of ad 90 easily would have associated the statements in Revelation 17 with Magna Mater upon the beast. They would have understood that Revelation 17 foretold God’s ultimate judgment upon the Magna Mater counterfeit religion that began at Babel. Certainly, that judgment did not come in that first century.

    By the 4th century, Christianity had become the preferred religion of the Roman Empire and with “acceptance”, the Greek-Roman pagans began to infect the church with the counterfeit. As a result:

    Thousands of the people who entered the church brought with them the superstitions and devotions which they had long given to Isis, Ishtar, Diana, Athena, Artemis, Aphrodite, and other goddesses, which were then conveniently transferred to Mary. Statues were dedicated to her, as there had been statue dedicated to Isis, Diana, and others, and before them the people kneeled and prayed as they had been accustomed to do before the statue of the heathen goddesses.[169]

    By the 5th century, the Romans renamed “Isis” and “Horus,” calling them “Mary” and “Jesus.”[170]

    The Common Thread of Harlotry

    Going by various names and configurations from Babel to the Roman Empire, the Magna Mater counterfeit religion has been the invisible entity holding people in bondage to counterfeit religions propagated by Satan and designed to bring him to the position of being a counterfeit god, “like the Most High.” Thus, the mother-child goddess image has spanned 2500 years of ancient history.

    That image continues into the 21st century, as seen in the symbols of the European Union. Standing outside of the EU office building is a metal sculpture of a woman on a bull. Additionally, on the dome of the new £8 million Parliament Building in Strasbourg there is a colossal painting of a woman riding a beast, while in the Parliamentary office building, there is a huge painting of a nearly naked woman upon a beast.[171] The Euro currency shows a similar figure. Using such imagery, the European Union revives and strengthens the ancient Greek myth, Europa.

    Another Form of the Magna Mater?

    In Greek mythology Europa, the daughter of a Phoenician king of Tyre was out gathering flowers by the seashore. The god Zeus spied her and fell in love with her. Desiring her, he took the form of a beautiful chestnut colored bull and enticed her onto his back. Before she could jump off, he took her across the sea to the island of Crete where she bore him a son. Artists have painted the image of the woman on the beast throughout history. Archaeology attests to the antiquity of the image.[172] Europa is merely the Greek image of Semiramis, the Magna Mater.

    It is very difficult to find any definitive basis for the naming of Europe after Europa. One can only note that her many legendary travels in the land now called Europe gave the continent its name. Many stories seem to indicate that her travels reflect her journey from maidenhood to full maturity, from life to death to rebirth.[173] Perhaps this is why the European Union chose the symbol, for in the supra-national European Union is seen the rebirth of Europe and the Roman Empire. If the European Union is the embryonic form of Daniel’s latter day, fourth global empire, then perhaps the supra-religion of the Magna Mater is near.

    Paul informs us that Jesus Christ “gave himself for our sins, that He might deliver us from this present evil world [age], according to the will of God and our Father” (Galatians 1:4). Just four verses later, he warns that “though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed” (v. 8). Certainly, any angel from heaven preaching another, i.e., a counterfeit gospel, would have to be a fallen angel. Thus, through true faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, we are delivered from the evil age, referring to the age before the Messianic Kingdom. However, for those without such a trust in Christ, they are in danger of believing a counterfeit gospel. In his letter to the Thessalonians, Paul indicates that in this present age, the “mystery of iniquity doth already work” (2 Thessalonians 2:7). We believe this “mystery” is none other that the counterfeit religion, that will reach its height when the anti-Christ is revealed (v. 9). Notice it is “after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders,” that will include the Magna Mater of the supra-religion. Perhaps this is the “strong delusion, that they should believe a lie” (v. 11). Happily as Paul explains, the Lord Jesus Christ will “consume” it all “with the spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming” (v. 8). We trust that the reader does know the Lord Jesus Christ as His personal savior and with Paul can rejoice that “He called you by our gospel [the true gospel], to the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore, brethren, stand fast, and hold the traditions [ordinances][174] which ye have been taught, whether by word, or our epistle” (vv.14-15). With the Second Coming of the Lord all will be revealed, including His Bride, and the counterfeit of Satan and his dreams will be destroyed.

    The supra-religion and its Magna Mater may not be the actual scenario, but it can be said that world events surrounding us would suggest that God’s true Son, Jesus Christ, may soon come for His Bride “that where I am, there ye may be also” (John 14:3). With the Apostle John, we too pray, “Amen, even so come Lord Jesus” (Rev. 22:20).


    Bibliography

    “5 Million Pilgrims Visit Virgin’s Shrine,” Orange County Register, Dec. 13, 1999.

    “Answers to Recent Questions” University of Dayton (Ohio). University of Dayton. http://www.udayton.edu. (15 Nov. 2005).

    “Bishop – Fatima open to all” Portugal’s National Weekend Newspaper in English. 16 Oct 2004. http://the-news/cgi-local/story.pl?title=Bishop-Fatima open to all&edition=all. (3 Jan 2005).

    “Christianity’s Jewish Roots” The Economist. Dec 20, 2003-Jan 2,2004.

    “Churches Close Rift.” Sky News. (May 19, 2005). http://www.sky.com/skynews/article/0,,30200-1182464,00.html. (14 Nov. 2005).

    “Coincidences” of European Flag” Zenit News Agency 7 Dec 1999, ZE00120707. http://www.zenit.org/english/archive/9912/ZE991207.html , (14 Nov 2005).

    “Council of Europe’s Emblems” The Council of Europe. http://www.coe.int/T/e/Com/About_coe/flag.asp. (25 Sep 2004).

    “Dubai Internet City – A Real Broadband Oasis.” Cisco Systems. 1999-2005. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/netso/ns341/ns396/ns223/ns227/networking_solutions. (17 Nov. 2005).

    “EU Constitution Omits Reference to Christianity,” The New American, July 26, 2004.

    “Europe in the 21st Century: the Shape of things to come.” Europa. (European Union, 2003) http://europa.eu.int. 20 Jul 2003.

    “Fatima to Become Interfaith Shrine” Portugal’s National Weekend Newspaper in English. 1 Nov 2003. http://the-news.net/cgi-local/sotry.pl?title=Fatima to become interfaith shrine&edition=all. (3 Jan 2005).

    “Hindus Worship at Fatima Altar” Portugal’s National Weekend Newspaper in English. 22 May 2004. http://the-news.net/cgi-local/story.pl?title=Hindus worship at Fatima altar&edition=all. 3 Jan 2005.

    “In the Land of Knox, Religion Isn’t What It Was” The Scotsman., http://news.scotsman.com. (1 Mar. 2005).

    “Our Lady of Medjugorje - Message given July 25, 1990.” http://www.medjugorje.org/msg90.htm. (3 Mar 2005).

    “Rome to Control Fatima?” Portugal’s National Weekend Newspaper in English. 2 Oct 2004. http://the-news.net/cgi-local/sotry.pl?title=rome to control Fatima?&edition=all. (3 Jan 2005).

    “The EU at a glance – The symbols of the European Union” Europa., http://europa.eu.int/abc/symbols/emblem/index_en.htm, (26 May 2004).

    “The EU’s Relations with Mercosur – Overview.” Europa (European Union, 2005). http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/mercosur/into/ . (13 Nov 2005).

    “The Message and Meaning of Rue de Bac.” Daily Catholic October. 2001. http://www.dailycatholic.org/issue/2001/Oct/ruedebac.htm. (14 Nov 2005).

    “The Miraculous Medal and Its Meaning.” The Association of the Miraculous Medal. http://www.amm.org/medal.htm. (14 Nov 2005).

    “The Portugal News Reports the Facts on Fatima Congress” The News, Portugal’s English Language Online Newspaper. 15 Nov 2003. www.the-news.net (3 Mar 2005).

    “The Shrine of Our Lady of Europe.” Gibraltar Government Tourism. 22 Apr 2003. http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/tourism/lady_of_europe.htm. (4 Aug 2003).

    “Travel – Strausbourg/EU” Ordo Praeicatorum – The Order of Preachers – the Dominican Family Website. The Dominican Order of the Roman Catholic Church. http://www.op.org/steinkerchner/travels/strasbourg/eu.htm, (6/2/04).

    “United in Diversity.” Europa. http://www.europa.eu.int/abc/panorama./index_en.htm. (18 Nov 2005).

    “Unity of Hearts” Daily Catholic October 2001. http://www.dailycathoic.org/issue/2001Oct/redebac.htm (14 Nov 2005).

    “Vatican Dossier – John Paul II Entrust Third Millennium To Mary,“ Zenit Online. 6 June 2001. http://www.Zenit.org. Also see John Paul II. “Act of Entrustment to Mary – Jubilee of Bishops.”

    “Why Unity Matters.” Churches Together Association. http://www.churches-together.org.uk/whoweare_why_unity_matters.htm. (12 Nov. 2005).

    “Yes to Reference to Christianity, Berlusconi Said.” Italy On Line – Agenzia Giornalistica Italia – News in English. 25 Aug 2003. http://www.agi.it/english/news.pl?doc=200308252011-0146-RT1-POL-0-NF82&page=0. (26 Aug 2003).

    Alford, Henry. The Greet Testament - Vol. 4. Chicago: Moody Press, 1958.

    Barringer, Judith M. “Abstract: Europa and the Nereids: Wedding or Funeral.” American Journal of Archaeology. http://www.ajaonline.org/archive/95.4/barringer_judith_m.html. (26 Feb 2005).

    Beyer, Richard J. “April 6, 1993 Meditation” Medjugorje Day By Day, Notre Dame, IN: Ave Maria Press, 1993.

    Boettner, Loraine. Roman Catholicism. New Jersey: The Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1962.

    Bonde, Jens-Peter. “Why Shouldn’t Spain Re-run its Referendum?” EU Observer. http://euobserver.com/?aid=19174&sid=7. (26 May 2005).

    Booker, Christopher Booker and North, Richard. The Great Deception – the Secret History of the European Union. London: Continuum, 2003.

    BDB - Brown, Driver, Briggs. Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978.

    Bruteau, Beatrice. “The Unknown Goddess,” The Goddess Re-Awakening, compiled by Shirley Nicholson. Wheaton, IL: the Theosophical Publishing House, 1992.

    Cini, Michelle, European Union Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

    Dixon, Thomas. “Ignoring God in the Constitution” Christianity Today. 25 Jun 2003. http://www.christianity today.com. (3 Mar 2005).

    Durant, Will. The Story of Civilization: Part 1 - Our Oriental Heritage. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1954.

    Fisher, Ianr. “Pope Explains Christian Roots in Choice of Name” International Herald Tribune, 29 Apr 2005. http://www.iht.com/aritcles/2005/04/28/news/vatican.php, (14 Nov 2005).

    Frampton, Kenneth. Le Corbusier. London: Thames & Hudson, 2001.

    Franklin, Alan. EU the Final World Empire – 2nd ed. OK: Hearthstone Publishing, 2004.

    Fransen, Frederic. The Supranational Politics of Jean Monnet: Ideas and Origins of the European Community. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2001.

    Gale, Elaine. “Mary’s Rising Popularity Goes Beyond Faith,” Los Angeles Times, Dec. 25, 1998.

    Henry, Matthew. Matthew Henry Commentary. (Online Bible Edition – Version 2.0, 19 Jan 2005).

    Hilton, Adrian. The Principality and the Power of Europe – 2nd ed.. Rickmansworth, Eng: Dorchester House Publications, 2000.

    Hoyt, Herman A. Studies in Revelation. Winona Lake, IN: BMH Books, 1977.

    Humanist Manifest II, American Humanist Association, www.humanist.net/documents/manifesto2.html. (15 Nov 2005).

    Hunt, Dave. A Woman Rides the Beast. Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1994.

    JFB - Jamison, Faucet, Brown Bible Commentary. (Online Bible Edition – Version 2.0, 19 Jan 2005).

    John Paul II, Evangelium vitae, 3/25/1995. The Vatican See. http://www.vatican.va/edocs/ENG0141/_P13.htm . (13 Nov 2005).

    ___________, Vittorio Messori, editor, Crossing the Threshold of Hope. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Borzoi Book, 1994).

    ___________, “Act of Entrustment to Mary, Jubilee of Bishops, 8 October 2000” The Vatican See. 2000. http://www.vaticanva. (14 Nov 2005).

    ___________, “Address to Hon. Mr. Romano Prodi, President of the European Commission.” 28 Oct 2004. The Vatican See. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/joh_paul_ii/speeches/2004/October/documents. (13 Nov 2005).

    Kunzli, Josef, editor. The Messages of the Lady of All Nations, Santa Barbara, CA, Queenship Publishing, 1996.

    LaTourette, Kenneth Scott. A History of Christianity – Beginnings to 1500 – Vol. 1. Peabody, MA: Prince Press, 1997.

    Leonard, Mark. Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century. London: Fourth Estate – a division of Harper Collins Publishers, 2005.

    Levy, David. Revelation, Hearing the Last Word. Bellmawr, NJ: The Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry, Inc., 1999.

    Neufeldt, Victoria, editor in chief. Webster’s New World Dictionary of American English 3rd ed. New York: Prentice Hall, 1994.

    Paisely, Ian. “Architect of European Union Advancing to RC Sainthood.” European Institute of Protestant Studies 23 Jun 2003 http://www.ianpaisley.org. (13 Nov 2005).

    ___________. “Rome’s Secret Weapon for Recatholicising the EU” The European Institute for Protestant Studies. 2005. http://www.ianpaisley.org. (14 Nov 2005).

    Petre, Jonathan. “Churches on Road to Doom if Trends Continue.” The Daily Telegraph, Saturday Sept 3, 2005. No. 46,729, page 1- Scottish Section. (1 Mar 2005).

    Petrisko, Thomas W. The Last Crusade (McKees Rock, PA: St. Andrews Productions, 1996).

    Phalen, Joseph. “The Immaculate Conception” ArtCyclopedia. http://www.artcyclopedia.com/advent/feature-2002-12-day9.html. (14 Nov 2005).

    Poole, Oliver. “Churches Agree Pope Has Overall Authority.” Electronic Telegraph Issue 1448. 13 May 1999. http://www.telegraph.co.uk. (14 Nov. 2005).

    Reagan, David R, “Europe in Bible Prophecy”, Lamb and Lion Ministries, http://www.lamblion.com/New10.php.

    Salter, Hannah. “Ludwig van Beethoven’s Ode to Joy.” Ludwig van Beethoven – Dominique Prevot. http//www.lvbeethoven.com/Oeuvres/Music_Odetojoy.html. (4 Dec. 2003).

    Scott, Peter R.“Fatima Inter-Religious Congress” Holy Cross Seminary Newsletter. December 1, 2002 (Bathurst, N.S.W.Australia: Holy Cross Seminary), http://www.holycrossseminary.com/2003_December.htm. (3 Mar 2005).

    Self, Bryce. “Semiaramis, Queen of Babyon.” http://www.Idolphin/org/semir.html. (2 Mar 2005).

    Showers, Renald. “The Queen of Heaven” Israel My Glory Vol. 62 No. 4 July/August 2004. Bellmawr, NJ: Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry.

    _______________. What on Earth is God Doing? Bellmawr, NJ: The Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry, Inc., 2003.

    Slater, Arthur, The United States of Europe. London, Allen & Unwin, nd.

    Strong, James. Strong’s Concordance. (Online Bible Edition – Version 2.0, 19 Jan 2005).

    Tetlow, Jim. “Will Mary Unite All Religions?” Endtime Issues Newsletter No. 116 p. 19. http://www.biblicalperspectives.com/endtimeissues/et_116.htm. (17 Nov 2005).

    Thomas, Robert L. Revelation 8-22, An Exegetical Commentary. Chicago: Moody Press, 1995.

    TWOT – Harris, Archer, Waltke. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament – 2 Vol. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980.

    Vennari, John. “Fatima to Become Interfaith Shrine? An Account From One Who Was There.” http://www.fatima.org/news/newsview/sprep111303 (3 Jan 2005).

    Walvoord, John. The Revelation of Jesus Christ – A Commentary by John Walvoord. Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1966.

    Weible, Wayne. Medjugorje the Message. Brewster, MA: Paraclette Press, 1989.

    Woodward, Kenneth L. “Hail Mary,” Newsweek, August 25, 1997.

    WordNet Dictionary, (Princeton University - Hyperdictionary.com, 2000-2005), http:hyperdictinary.com/dictionary/supranational (21 Sep 2004).



    [1] “In the Land of Knox, Religion Isn’t What It Was” The Scotsman., http://news.scotsman.com. (1 Mar. 2005).

    [2] Jonathan Petre. “Churches on Road to Doom if Trends Continue.” The Daily Telegraph, Saturday Sept 3, 2005. No. 46,729, page 1- Scottish Section. (1 Mar 2005).

    [3] Note: the constitution is merely the latest treaty amending the operation of the European Union. The rejection by two members of the constitution does not signify the complete rejection of the constitution nor the end of the European Union. Great efforts are underway to approve the constitution by circumventing the referendum of France and the Netherlands.

    [4] Governments of Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Poland, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Slovakia, Italy, and Malta – “EU Constitution Omits Reference to Christianity,” The New American, July 26, 2004, page 7. Also, Thomas Dixon. “Ignoring God in the Constitution” Christianity Today. 25 Jun 2003. http://www.christianity today.com. (3 Mar 2005).

    [5] Thomas Dixon. “Ignoring God in the Constitution”

    [6] “The Portugal News Reports the Facts on Fatima Congress” The News, Portugal’s English Language Online Newspaper. 15 Nov 2003. www.the-news.net (3 Mar 2005).

    [7] Victoria Neufeldt, editor in chief. “Supra-“ Webster’s New World Dictionary of American English 3rd ed. (New York: Prentice Hall, 1994).

    [8] Michelle Cini, European Union Politics. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 1.

    [9] John Walvoord. The Revelation of Jesus Christ – A Commentary by John Walvoord. (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1966), p. 243. See also, David Levy, Revelation, Hearing the Last Word. (Bellmawr, NJ: The Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry, Inc., 1999), p. 189.

    [10] Robert L. Thomas. Revelation 8-22, An Exegetical Commentary. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1995), p. 282, quoting Ford, Revelation, p. 277; Wall, Revelation, p. 205.

    [11] James Strong. “Strong’s Concordance”. Online Bible (Version 2), Strong’s # 3173.

    [12] Thomas, 282.

    [13] Thomas, 282; Johnson, “Revelation,” 12:555; Hailey, Revelation, p. 343; Philip Edgcumbe Hughes, The Book of Revelation (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 19990), p. 182.

    [14] Herman A. Hoyt. Studies in Revelation. (Winona Lake, IN: BMH Books, 1977), p. 111.

    [15] Walvoord, p. 243.

    [16] Walvoord, 244.

    [17] Henry Alford. The Greek Testament - Vol. 4. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1958), p. 706.

    [18] Thomas, p. 283. See also, Walvoord, p. 243.

    [19] Thomas quotes Hailey, Revelation, pp. 342-43, p. 283.

    [20] Walvoord, p. 243.

    [21] “Travel – Strausbourg/EU” Ordo Praeicatorum – The Order of Preachers – the Dominican Family Website. The Dominican Order of the Roman Catholic Church. http://www.op.org/steinkerchner/travels/strasbourg/eu.htm, (6/2/04).

    [22] Christopher Booker and Richard North. The Great Deception – the Secret History of the European Union.(London: Continuum, 2003), p. 33.

    [23] Booker, p. 8. also, Kenneth Frampton. Le Corbusier. (London: Thames & Hudson, 2001), p. 161.

    [24] Booker, p. 453.

    [25] Booker, p. 453.

    [26] Alan Franklin. EU the Final World Empire – 2nd ed. (OK: Hearthstone Publishing, 2004), p. 46.

    [27] Booker, p. 14.

    [28] Frederic Fransen. The Supranational Politics of Jean Monnet: Ideas and Origins of the European Community. (Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2001), p. 15.

    [29] Booker, p. 15.

    [30] Booker, p. 428.

    [31] Adrian Hilton. The Principality and the Power of Europe – 2nd ed.. (Rickmansworth, Eng: Dorchester House Publications, 2000), p. 33.

    [32] “United in Diversity.” Europa. http://www.europa.eu.int/abc/panorama./index_en.htm. (18 Nov 2005).

    [33] “Europe in the 21st Century: the Shape of things to come.” Europa. (European Union, 2003) http://europa.eu.int. 20 Jul 2003.

    [34] “The EU’s Relations with Mercosur – Overview.” Europa (European Union, 2005). http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/mercosur/into/ . (13 Nov 2005).

    [35] Mark Leonard. Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century. (London: Fourth Estate – a division of Harper Collins Publishers, 2005), p. 135.

    [36] “Diverse.” WordNet Dictionary, (Princeton University - Hyperdictionary.com, 2000-2005), http:hyperdictinary.com/dictionary/supranational (21 Sep 2004).

    [37] BDB, p. 1116. TWOT 2419, p. 941, vol. II.

    [38] “Supranational” WordNet Dictionary, (Princeton University - Hyperdictionary.com, 2000-2005), http:hyperdictinary.com/dictionary/supranational (21 Sep 2004).

    [39] Booker, p. 12.

    [40] Booker, 103.

    [41] Jens-Peter Bonde. “Why Shouldn’t Spain Re-run its Referendum?” EU Observer. http://euobserver.com/?aid=19174&sid=7. (26 May 2005).

    [42] Slater, Arthur, The United States of Europe (London, Allen & Unwin), p. 92 quoted by Booker, p. 17.

    [43] Cini, p. 1.

    [44] Cini, p. 3.

    [45] Booker, 374.

    [46] “Yes to Reference to Christianity, Berlusconi Said.” Italy On Line – Agenzia Giornalistica Italia – News in English. 25 Aug 2003. http://www.agi.it/english/news.pl?doc=200308252011-0146-RT1-POL-0-NF82&page=0. (26 Aug 2003).

    [47] Jean Monnet and Arthur Salter are the true founding fathers of the EU, but much of their work was “behind the scenes,” hence they are not the recognized founders.

    [48] Adrian Hilton, p. 39, quoting Church of England Newspaper, 10 December 1999 and The Tablet, 30 October 1999 issue.

    [49] Jacques Paragan quoted by Luke Coppen, Catholic Herald Newspaper 23 May 2003 and reported by Ian Paisely “Architect of European Union Advancing to RC Sainthood.” European Institute of Protestant Studies 23 Jun 2003 http://www.ianpaisley.org. (13 Nov 2005).

    [50] Ian Paisley.

    [51] “Council of Europe’s Emblems” The Council of Europe. http://www.coe.int/T/e/Com/About_coe/flag.asp. (25 Sep 2004).

    [52] “Council of Europe’s Emblems”.

    [53] “Coincidences” of European Flag”Zenit News Agency 7 Dec 1999, ZE00120707. http://www.zenit.org/english/archive/9912/ZE991207.html , (14 Nov 2005).

    [54] “The EU at a glance – The symbols of the European Union” Europa., http://europa.eu.int/abc/symbols/emblem/index_en.htm, (26 May 2004).

    [55] Ibid.

    [56] Ibid.

    [57] Booker, p. 218 fn., also, Europa Website.

    [58] Booker, p. 218 fn., also Hermann Schafer: Sterne und Staaten, in : Koch, Thilo (Ed.), Euopre und ich. Personliche Eindrucke und Eriebnisse, Boon, 1993. Quoted in HDG.

    [59] Booker, p. 218 fn.

    [60] Dr. David R Reagan, “Europe in Bible Prophecy”, Lamb and Lion Ministries, http://www.lamblion.com/New10.php. His footnote: Remarks of Leon Marchal were reported by Dr. William Crampton, executive direc­tor of The Flag Institute in York, England. The remarks were made in 1973.

    [61] Zenit.

    [62] “Unity of Hearts” Daily Catholic October 2001. http://www.dailycathoic.org/issue/2001Oct/redebac.htm (14 Nov 2005).

    [63] Joseph Phelan. “The Immaculate Conception” ArtCyclopedia. http://www.artcyclopedia.com/advent/feature-2002-12-day9.html. (14 Nov 2005).

    [64] Booker, Regan, and Zenit.

    [65] “The European Emblem,” http://europa.eu.int/abc/symbols/index_en.htm (20 July 2003).

    [66] John Paul II, Evangelium vitae, 3/25/1995. The Vatican See. http://www.vatican.va/edocs/ENG0141/_P13.htm . (13 Nov 2005).

    [67] Strong’s # 3173 and 4592.

    [68] “Symbol.” Webster’s.

    [69] Dave Hunt. A Woman Rides the Beast. (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1994), p. 459.

    [70] “The Shrine of Our Lady of Europe.” 4 Aug 2003. www.gibraltar.gov.gi/tourism/lady_of_Europe.htm, (24 Jun 2004).

    [71] Ibid.

    [72] “The European Emblem”.

    [73] On May 9, 1950, Robert Schuman presented his proposal calling for the European Union. In 1985, the EU adopted the 9 May as Europe Day to honor Schuman. However, many still observe the earlier designated Europe Day of 5 May. “European Symbols” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe_Day. (14 Nov 2005).

    [74] “The Shrine of Our Lady of Europe.”

    [75] John Paul II. “Address to Hon. Mr. Romano Prodi, President of the European Commission.” 28 Oct 2004. The Vatican See. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/joh_paul_ii/speeches/2004/October/documents. (13 Nov 2005).

    [76] Hilton, p. 34.

    [77] Hilton, pp. 35-36.

    [78] Ian Fisher. “Pope Explains Christian Roots in Choice of Name” International Herald Tribune, 29 Apr 2005. http://www.iht.com/aritcles/2005/04/28/news/vatican.php, (14 Nov 2005).

    [79] Ian Paisley. “Rome’s Secret Weapon for Recatholicising the EU” The European Institute for Protestant Studies. 2005. http://www.ianpaisley.org. (14 Nov 2005).

    [80] Hunt, p. 469

    [81] John Paul II. “Act of Entrustment to Mary, Jubilee of Bishops, 8 October 2000” The Vatican See. 2000. http://www.vaticanva. (14 Nov 2005).

    [82] “Paragraph 2. ‘Conceived by the Power of the Holy Spirit and Born of the Virgin Mary’” the Vatican See. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/_P1K.HTM. (15 Nov 2005).

    [83] “The Message and Meaning of Rue de Bac.” Daily Catholic October. 2001. http://www.dailycatholic.org/issue/2001/Oct/ruedebac.htm. (14 Nov 2005).

    [84] “The Miraculous Medal and Its Meaning.” The Association of the Miraculous Medal. http://www.amm.org/medal.htm. (14 Nov 2005).

    [85] This paper is an excerpt from a manuscript presenting an in-depth study of the alliance and how it became the European Union of today.

    [86] Militant amillennialism in the UK plays down the significance of eschatology by calling it a minor area of doctrine.

    [87] Note the use of “bringing in the kingdom” reflects the doctrinal position of both post-millennialists and militant amillennialists (Replacement Theology groups in the United Kingdom). Thus, the “minor” doctrine concerning the Millennium is used as a basis for ecumenicalism.

    [88] “Why Unity Matters.” Churches Together Association. http://www.churches-together.org.uk/whoweare_why_unity_matters.htm. (12 Nov. 2005).

    [89] Oliver Poole. “Churches Agree Pope Has Overall Authority.” Electronic Telegraph Issue 1448. 13 May 1999. http://www.telegraph.co.uk. (14 Nov. 2005).

    [90] “Churches Close Rift.” Sky News. (May 19, 2005). http://www.sky.com/skynews/article/0,,30200-1182464,00.html. (14 Nov. 2005).

    [91] Hunt, p. 467.

    [92] “The Portugal News reports the facts on Fatima Congress.” The Portugal National Weekend Newspaper in English. 15 Nov 2003. http://the-news.net.

    [93] Hannah Salter. “Ludwig van Beethoven’s Ode to Joy.” Ludwig van Beethoven – Dominique Prevot. http//www.lvbeethoven.com/Oeuvres/Music_Odetojoy.html. (4 Dec. 2003).

    [94] Elysium – “plain of the departed, dwelling place of virtuous people after death.” Webster’s New World Dictionary of American English – 3rd College Ed. (New York: Prentice Hall, 1994).

    [95] Beatrice Bruteau, “The Unknown Goddess,” The Goddess Re-Awakening, compiled by Shirley Nicholson, (Wheaton, IL: the Theosophical Publishing House, 1992), p. 68.

    [96] Humanist Manifest II, American Humanist Association, www.humanist.net/documents/manifesto2.html. (15 Nov 2005).

    [97] Renald Showers, What on Earth is God Doing? (Bellmawr, NJ: The Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry, Inc., 2003), p. 100, quoting John Charles Cooper, The Roots of Radical Theology, pp. 118, 121.

    [98] Peter R. Scott. “Fatima Inter-Religious Congress” Holy Cross Seminary Newsletter. December 1, 2002 (Bathurst, N.S.W.Australia: Holy Cross Seminary), http://www.holycrossseminary.com/2003_December.htm. (3 Mar 2005).

    [99] Ibid.

    [100] Note the term Roman Virgin Mary, Virgin Mary, Roman Mary, Mary refers to the Mary of the Roman Catholic doctrinal view. The term, Biblical Mary, refers to the Mary of the Scriptures.

    [101] “The Shrine of Our Lady of Europe.” Gibraltar Government Tourism. 22 Apr 2003. http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/tourism/lady_of_europe.htm. (4 Aug 2003).

    [102] Global Mary will be the term to indicate the supra-religion’s unifying factor or controlling entity.

    [103] Pope John Paul II, Vittorio Messori, editor, Crossing the Threshold of Hope. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Borzoi Book, 1994), p. 215.

    [104] John Paul II, “Act of Entrustment to Mary – Jubilee of Bishops”.

    [105] Ibid.

    [106] “Vatican Dossier – John Paul II Entrust Third Millennium To Mary,“ Zenit Online. 6 June 2001. http://www.Zenit.org. Also see John Paul II. “Act of Entrustment to Mary – Jubilee of Bishops.”

    [107] Thomas W. Petrisko. The Last Crusade (McKees Rock, PA: St. Andrews Productions, 1996), p. 70.

    [108] Jim Tetlow. “Will Mary Unite All Religions?” Endtime Issues Newsletter No. 116 p. 19. http://www.biblicalperspectives.com/endtimeissues/et_116.htm. (17 Nov 2005).

    [109] Jim Tetlow, p. 20 quoting Fr. Don Stefano Gobbi, To the Priest, Our Lady’s Beloved Sons (St. Francis, ME: The National Headquarters of the Marian Movement of Priests in the United States of America, 1998), pp 923, 924. Message given to Father Gobbi, Oct 13, 1996, Tokyo Japan.

    [110] Jim Tetlow, p. 21. Gobbi, p. 419. Message given in Como, Italy, Dec. 31, 1984.

    [111] Wayne Weible. Medjugorje the Message. (Brewster, MA: Paraclette Press, 1989), p. 344.

    [112] Believed by many Marian theologians.

    [113] Jim Tetlow, p. 26 quoting Kunzli, editor, The Messages of the Lord of All Nations, p. 85.

    [114] Jim Tetlow, p. 27, quoting Petrisko, Call of the Ages, p. 449.

    [115] Jim Tetlow, p. 11.

    [116] “5 Million Pilgrims Visit Virgin’s Shrine,” Orange County Register, Dec. 13, 1999, p. 20.

    [117] Hunt, p. 453.

    [118] Josef Kunzli, editor, The Messages of the Lady of All Nations, (Santa Barbara, CA, Queenship Publishing, 1996), p. 85.

    [119] Kenneth L. Woodward, “Hail Mary,” Newsweek, August 25, 1997, p. 50.

    [120] “Our Lady of Medjugorje - Message given July 25, 1990.” http://www.medjugorje.org/msg90.htm. (3 Mar 2005).

    [121] “Our Lady of Medjugorje - Message given December 25, 1990,” http://www.medjugojie.org/msg90.htm. (3 Mar 2005).

    [122] Richard J. Beyer, “April 6, 1993 Meditation” Medjugorje Day By Day, (Notre Dame, IN: Ave Maria Press, 1993).

    [123] Elaine Gale, “Mary’s Rising Popularity Goes Beyond Faith,” Los Angeles Times, Dec. 25, 1998, p. A41.

    [124] Hunt, p. 453.

    [125] “Answers to Recent Questions” University of Dayton (Ohio). http://www.udayton.edu . (15 Nov. 2005).

    [126] Ibid.

    [127] “Christianity’s Jewish Roots” The Economist. Dec 20, 2003-Jan 2,2004. p.25.

    [128] Surah 3:40-3:46.

    [129] “Hindus Worship at Fatima Altar” Portugal’s National Weekend Newspaper in English. 22 May 2004. http://the-news.net/cgi-local/story.pl?title=Hindus worship at Fatima altar&edition=all. 3 Jan 2005.

    [130] Ibid.

    [131] “Bishop – Fatima open to all” Portugal’s National Weekend Newspaper in English. 16 Oct 2004. http://the-news/cgi-local/story.pl?title=Bishop-Fatima open to all&edition=all. (3 Jan 2005).

    [132] “Fatima to Become Interfaith Shrine” Portugal’s National Weekend Newspaper in English. 1 Nov 2003. http://the-news.net/cgi-local/sotry.pl?title=Fatima to become interfaith shrine&edition=all. (3 Jan 2005).

    [133] John Vennari. “Fatima to Become Interfaith Shrine? An Account From One Who Was There.” http://www.fatima.org/news/newsview/sprep111303 (3 Jan 2005).

    [134] “Fatima Inter-Religious Congress” Holy Cross Seminary Newsletter.

    [135] “Fatima to Become Interfaith Shrine” Portugal’s National Weekend Newspaper in English.

    [136] Ibid.

    [137] Ibid.

    [138] “Rome to Control Fatima?” Portugal’s National Weekend Newspaper in English. 2 Oct 2004. http://the-news.net/cgi-local/sotry.pl?title=rome to control Fatima?&edition=all. (3 Jan 2005).

    [139] Hoyt, p. 110.

    [140] A. T. Robertson, “Revelation 17:5” Robertson’s Word Pictures.(Online Bible Edition – Version 2.0, 19 Jan 2005).

    [141] Ibid.

    [142] Thomas quoting Hailey, p. 289.

    [143] Ibid.

    [144] Lenski, Bullinger, Seiss – Thomas, p. 289.

    [145] Thomas, quoting Walvoord, p. 290.

    [146] Thomas, p. 290.

    [147] Walvoord, p. 246.

    [148] “Dubai Internet City – A Real Broadband Oasis.” Cisco Systems. 1999-2005. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/netso/ns341/ns396/ns223/ns227/networking_solutions. (17 Nov. 2005).

    [149] Strong’s #2048.

    [150] Walvoord, p. 244.

    [151] Thomas, p. 285.

    [152] Alford, p. 707.

    [153] Thomas, p. 286.

    [154] TWOT, 2424, p. 943 vol. II.

    [155] Ibid.

    [156] Will Durant. The Story of Civilization: Part 1 - Our Oriental Heritage. (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1954), p. 120.

    [157] “Ezra 8:14,”Jamison, Faucet, Brown Bible Commentary. (Online Bible Edition – Version 2.0, 19 Jan 2005 ).

    [158] “Ezra 8:14,”JFB. (Online Bible Edition). Also, Levy, p. 193.

    [159] Will Durant, p. 239.

    [160] Matthew Henry. “Ezra 8:14,” Matthew Henry Commentary. (Online Bible Edition – Version 2.0, 19 Jan 2005 ).

    [161] Walvoord, p. 247.

    [162] “Ishtar” Encyclopedia Britannica.

    [163] Walvoord, p. 247.

    [164] Durant, fn. P. 241.

    [165] Levy, p. 193. Also, Hoyt, p. 110..

    [166] Loraine Boettner. Roman Catholicism. (New Jersey: The Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1962), p. 143.

    [167] Bryce Self. “Semiramis, Queen of Babylon” Page 1. http://Idolphin.org/semir.html. (2 Mar 2005).

    [168] Kenneth Scott LaTourette. A History of Christianity – Beginnings to 1500 – Vol. 1. (Peabody, MA: Prince Press, 1997), p. 25.

    [169] Boettner, 136.

    [170] Hunt, p. 419.

    [171] Franklin, p. 49.

    [172] Judith M. Barringer. “Abstract: Europa and the Nereids: Wedding or Funeral.” American Journal of Archaeology. http://www.ajaonline.org/archive/95.4/barringer_judith_m.html. (26 Feb 2005).

    [173] Ibid.

    [174] 2 Thessalonians 2:15 footnote. The King James Study Bible. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1988).